Wednesday, 28 October 2009

Bibliography

Bibliography

  1. Singai Emperor Segarasasekaran, Sekarasasekaram 14th Century
  2. Singai Emperor Segarasasekaran, Segarasasekaramalai, 14th Century
  3. Singai Emperor Segarasasekaran, Thadsana Kailasa Puranam 14th Century
  4. Singai Emperor Pararasasekaran, Pararasasekaram 12000, 15th Century
  5. Thamilan P. Sangarapillai, Nam Thamilar
  6. Siddha Valmihi, Ramayanam
  7. Viyasanuni, Maha Gharatham, Ramachariar Publication
  8. Thamilarngnar P M Selvadurai, Inapirachinaiku Theervu
  9. Sivanantha Yohi, Yalpana Kudiattam 1932
  10. Thamil Navalar Saritham
  11. Nallur Sinnathamby Pulavar Paralai Vinayagar Pallu 1790 (Trustees publication 1998)
  12. Mudaliyar Muttuthamby, Yalpana sarithiram
  13. Prof. S. Pathmanathan, Yarlpana Rachiyam
  14. Prof. S. Krishnarajah, Ilankai Varalaru 1 & 11
  15. Prince Pallavarajasekaran, Pallavarachiyam 2007
  16. Board of Trustees, Paralai Vinayagar Kovil Kudamulzhuku 2003
  17. Panditharatnam C. S. Navaratnam, Tamils of Ceylon
  18. Thamilaringnar K. Muthu cumarasamypillai, Yarlpana Kudiattam
  19. Kathir Tharigasalam, Ilankai Idapeyar Aivu
  20. P. D. Seenivasa Iyankar, Thamilar Varalary
  21. Dr. M. Rasamanickanar, Pallavar Varalaru
  22. Thamilaringnar P. M. Selvadurai & Thamilar Varalarum Inapirachanaiyum, 1999
  23. Anthony Jeeva, Kandy Mavatta Thamilar Varalatu Pathivugal 2002
  24. N. Navanayagamoorthy, Eela Thamilar Varalatu Suvadugal, 2002
  25. V. K. Nadarajah, Pandaya Eelam, 1973
  26. Wilheim Geiger, Sinhala Varalatu Noolgalin Nambagathanmai, Tamil Translation K. Satchithandan & Kannan
  27. Rev. Gnanapragasar, Yarlpana Vaipava Vinarsanan
  28. Dr. P. Pushparatnam, Thsliyal Nokil Ilankai Thamilar Panpadu
  29. H. W. Codrington, A Short History of Ceylon
  30. G. C. Mendis, Ancient History of Ceylon
  31. P. E. Pieris, Prince Vijayapala of Ceylon
  32. S.Athavan, Sovereign of Tronate, 2008
  33. Dr. P. Pushparatnam, Ancient coins of Sri Lankan Tamil Rulers
  34. Dr. P. Ragupathy, Early Settlements in Jaffna.
  35. A. R. Arudpragasam, Traditional Home land of Tamils, 1996

Sunday, 25 October 2009

Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Pallava Empire

King Koventhan


About the year 1600 BC Koventhan ruled Pallava Kingdom . ‘Koventhan’ is a tittle associated with Pallava rulers. ‘Ko’ meant ‘nandhi’, eruthu, venthan meant ruler, as such, ‘Koventhan’ was synonymous with ‘nandhirasa’. The coins found at Anaikottai bearing the royal symbol are considered by researchers as belonging to the reign of ‘Koventhan’. This ruler, whether he reigned from Manipuram or Anaikottai has not been confirmed. During the 15th century BC there was a kingdom at Manipuram is confirmed by the old coin found there. (A.J) from Tharakan upto the time of Vithyunmali Anaikkotai had been the seat of the king.

Emperor Nanthirasa


His ruling prevailed in Pallavanadu about 1300 BC. Nantheswaram Sivan Temple of Ratmalana was built by him. Eelanadu was under his rule. In Nantheswaram are a Tamil, Savites only lived here under the Pallavas ruling. Nanthirasa built this temple for the worshipping of saivaites who lived there. In 1454 AC in the period of Kotte King Kumara Alageswaran (Parakramabahu VI) Ragula Thero wrote a book “Salavikini Sandesaya”. He quoted the Nantheeswaram temple in his book as follows – The pooja ceremonies conducted well and people had prayers in Tamil and sang sweet Tamil songs. From the period of Nanthirasa’s reign up to 1454 AC continuously saivaism and Tamil were flourished in Nantheswaram area. It was conformed that a large number of Tamil lived in high level with prosperity in 1454 AC.

King Pallavarasa


There is a period of interval the names of rulers are not available; the reason for this perhaps may be that they did not make a significant impact at that time. Even so that Pallavanadu had a continual rule and rulers cannot be overlooked or the ola leaved manuscripts were damaged and eaten by white ants. Simon Cassiechetty a well known writer of Tamil history has remarked that before 1500 BC that the Tamils have lived in lanka in dignity with strength. Before 1100 BC Pallavarasa’s rule had existed in Pallavam.

The rule at Anaikottai in the peninsula of Jaffnas is referred to by plolemy the well-known Alexandrine astronomer of 2nd century BC as Aakote and Nagadivu as Nagadibo and Nitsanam is called Nikama. Nikamam is a place at Singainagar (Chankanai, Jaffna) where groups of merchants lived.

Emperor Elalan


He ruled the country round about 1000 BC. Chaldia ruled by King Salamon in the same period. When his trade ships travelled towards east countries, they purchased gold, precious gems, elephant tusks, agar wood and pecock feathers from Thiruketheswaram harbour of Ophir (Ceylon). God siva appeard as big light from the earth to sky in the mount of Sivan (Adam’s peak). In his reign all Ceylon was under his rule. As a result names of many places of Eelam related with Pallavas. Pallavarayan Kaddu (Vanni). Nantheswaram (Colombo), Pallava Vankam (Thriyai), Nanthikadal (Pulmoddai). Thandeeswaram (Matra), are some of them. A traditional believe of sailors and captains of ship by singing the song “Ealaelo” in the deep sea the ship will return to shore without fail and it removes the fatique of travel.

King Elalasingan


Elaelasingan ruled pallavanadu around 921BC. During this period pallavam was in the forefront of sea-trade. At that time in Eelam eighteen verls (Nts;fs;) governed the region. These regions and verls were under the overall governance of Elelasingan.

King Kalatsingan


Around 848 BC the rule of Kalatsingan son of Elelasingan prevailed.

KingPallavarasa

He ruled the Pallava Kingdom from 780 BC to 718 BC.

Emperor Thandaimanan


In pallavam around 718 BC Kalatsingans’ son Thandaimannan ruled. It is said that his rule covered the whole of Lanka. At Devanagar in Mahaturai he built a Sivan Temple. This temple was called Thandeesvaram. The gopuram (spire) of this temple functioned as a direction indicator which is seen in the drawing of the region by Grecian sailors. The Sivalingam’s crown had a most precious sapphire set in it. This account of the sapphire and its flashing brightness in the sun’s rays aided sailors according to Portuguese writers. The temple’s vimanam (translated as the lofting structure) was covered on top by several gold plates. Like the sapphire stone this too helped the directional travel by sailors.

Around 16th century the Portuguese invaders plundered these treasures and destroyed the temple. In the year 1998, at Visitharama Vihara, the above- mentioned Sivalingam was found. The height of this Sivalingam is 4 feet and width 2 ½ feet. This sivalingam was the central divinity (karuvarai) of Thandeswaram Temple. The size of the Sivalingam clearly indicated that Thandaimannan had built a temple of grandeur for God Siva. The nandhi of the temple too was found. Today Thandesuvaram Temple is a temple for Thirumal (Vishnu). There Load Siva is seen called Saman. The size of the statue of Nandhi tells the story that a Large temple of Siva had been there at the site. Thandeswaram is now called Thondeswaram. The king who first built the temple was Thandaimannan and hence known as Thandeswaram.

Around 150 AC Ptolemy or Greek had recorded about Thandeeswaram Sivan Temple. Tower of this temple had been directing the sailors like a light house. This quoted in a world map drawn by Greeks. Further it says a big ruby with crescent shape was laid in the top of the Lingam and the roof of the temple were fixed with gold plates. The light reflected by gold plates shown the direction for sailors.

Further Ibin Battuta an Arabian Traveller described about this temple in 1344 AC in his travel notes as follows:-

It is a big city of commerce, A statue named as it town (Thandeeswaram) is in this temple. About thousands of priests, Yogis and more than 500 Devadasis (female dancers) have been working. Devadasis are dancing and singing daily in the right. The income of the city is belongs to this temple. The god statue of this temple made of gold with eyes having ruby stones. This two eyes are shining like illuminating torch.

Emperor Mahatharan


Around 646 BC Mahatharan son of Thandaimaman belonging to the family of Pallava Naga rulers, ruled the Pallava Empire from Manipuram and his rule was a one of fame. Mahatharan’s uncle Manikkanahan governed from Kaleniya and Mahatharan’s son-in-law Cholatharan ruled at Rameswaram as a sub-rulers.

From Singhai


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MANICCANAGAN KALANY THANDEESWARAM STONE TEMPLE

NAGAKING MANIKRAN PALLAVA ARCHITECTURE


Emperor Manirasa


Manirasa son of Mahatharan ruled Manipuram round about the year 580 BC. Manirasa Kulam and Manikrama Kulam (Minneriya tank) of Trincomalee were under the governance of Manirasa.

Emperor Koventhan


About the year 518 BC Koventhan son of Manirasa ruled Pallava Empire. The Pallava rulers embossed in their flags and coins the figure of Nandhi. The Pallavars were known as nandhirasas; also as Koventhars (Rasa and venthar in Tamil mean rulers). The stone-head and royal frank with the figure of nandi belongs to 5th Century BC as the rulership-embossing brings out known facto clearly. “Beginning 6th Century B.C upto 3rd Century A.C, that there was a strong rulership is clearly in evidence. Around 2nd Century after Christ the whole of Lanka had clearly been ruled by the Nagakings of Manipallavam” (A.J) Felicius history, a well-known work carries the evidence of Nagadivu rulership, being the initial indication by the westerners of this fact. Although around 5th Century B.C there had been three rulerships in Ceylon that pearl fishing was under the rule of Nagadivu is clear.

Emperor Nallanahan


The rule of Nallanahan was around 454 BC. In accounts by foreigners and connected literary works, there is proof that between pallavam and south-eastern countries from early times there had been sea traffic and trade. Nallanahan is the son of Koventhan. He was the king of Pallavam and Emperor of Ceylon. Stone carving 374 were found in south Ceylon until todate. The period of these stone carvings is before the first century AC. It was used by all casts of citizens. The word “Perumahan” was written in Tamil. But it was not found in anyone of the Pali literatures of Ceylon History (Dr. P. Pushparatnam). According to the constitution of Singai Nadu, a representative of each cast or community in the Royal assembly was called Perumahan.

Emperor Mudinaharasan


Nagadivu was ruled by Mudinaharasan around 389 BC. He was a great Tamil Scholar. His poetic composition had achieved recognition at Pandya Academy (Tamil Sangam

Emperor Parama athan

Paramathan is the son of Mudinaharasan who ruled around 324 BC. He authored much Tamil poetic compositions.

Emperor Theebarasa


Around 269 BC it is known that Theebarasa ruled Nagadivu.

Emperor Manikkanahan


Around 208 BC he ruled the country. During the reign of Manikkanahan. Sapphire stones of excellence were available for trading at Manipuram. As such traders from many lands traveled here. The epic well-known is ‘Silapadiharam’. Kannakis father Masathuvan Chetty sent the captain (meehaman) of his ship to purchase sapphire stones for her anklets to Manipuram. The naval fort of Manikkanahan was at Nedunthivu. The naval commander there was called Vediyarasan. He was known for hurling crack-missiles at enemy vessels and destroying them. Vediyarasan warred with the captain from Cholanad. During this battle the Naval commander of Thiruvadinilai Veeranarayanan was killed. On hearing the news of the death of ruler stopped the battle and commanded Vediyarasan to bring the captain of Cholaland to his palace. Also he ordered Vediyarasan to sell the Sapphire-stones. Nedunthivu was also known as Eaitpattinam because of the sea-fort there. The ruler Manikkanahan made Vediyarasan the chief of Neyithalnilam with the attendant ceremony (pattankaddi) . Megasthes was the emissary from Greece who came to India during the rulership of Chandragupta during 3rd Century B.C. “In the industry of gold, gold related products and producing pearls of quality Lanka lead India. Pearl fishing, and the west side townships on the sea-coast of North Sri Lanka, attracted western merchants for trade in ornament making produce to and craftsmanship. During this period the rulers connected with these ornament related regions of production. The affluent rulers of these regions had erected temples sustained by the pearl fishing income drew worshippers and pilgrims. This is evident from notes made by the traders from the west. (AJ) for quite a length of time conch shell were cut at chunnakam of Jaffna. This is proved by D.P.E.Pieris from his research from excavations. Muttuthambipillai of Chunnakam cut cart loads of conch shells, applied heat and made chunnam (lime). This confirmed the fact that lime was produced from cut conch shells and processed. Cutting conch shells was an art and these craftsmen were called ‘keeran’; from there cut shells bangles, rings and other ornaments were made and these were worn by the Tamils.

In the period before 2nd Century B.C. Coins stone-inscriptions bore Tamil words which meant that those in authority were Tamils; further the lettering was of a unique nature, The names of Tamils appearing in the above-mentioned inscriptions etc belonged to that era when related to the literary works of that era which carried such names says

Dr. P. Pushparatnam.

Emperor Elalan


The ruler of Pallava Empire Elalan was crowned in 151 BC. In 145 BC he captured Anourpuri when chieftain of Anourpuram refused to pay tribute and again brought the whole of Lanka under his rulership. For a length of 44 years he ruled justify. Elalan was a Saivaite and under his rulership Saivaism and Tamil received royal attention. Karvannathesan of Santhanakamam and other sub-rulers paid dues into the royal treasury of Emperor Elalan. The flag of Nandi flew high all one Sri Lanka. At Anourpuri he erected a temple of Siva. He was the son of Manikkanahan. It is known that Abeya (naga, Duttugemunu) killed him through conspiracy in battle. King Elalans son-in-law Pallavan massed 6000 fighters and proceeded from Pallavam to Anuradhapura and battled there. Tharmakulasingam stated that chapter 73&74 of Mahavamsam says – “Emperor Elalans body was fallen here. A memorial symbol was erected in this place. From that date todate the Kings who, pass paid their respect to the tomb by stopping music and drums and bow their head”. Elalans tomb was erected by King Abayan (Tuddugaman) and the above orders also made by him.

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EMPEROR ELALAN’S TOMB ELLALANCHENAI,ANOURPURI CHANDRAN RUTNAM 1981

(ELALA SOHONA OR THE STUPA OF THE “SO-CALLED” DAKKHINA VIHARA)

(SEE MAHAVAMSA, XXXIII : 89)

Emperor Uthiran


Uthiran ruled from 101BC until 40 BC. In the stone inscriptions of first century B.C. the name Naganagar (Chulipuram) is seen. Also coins inscribed by the ruler Uththiran with his name were found. These coins belonged to the first century BC and were those that belonged to the period when Naganagar was ruled by the Tamil king is the findings of research persons. Uthiran is the son of Elelan.

Emperor Perunahan


Perunahan assumed rulership about 40 BC. He is the son of Uthiran and ruled Pallava Empire. He was responsible for building a big water reservoir (Kulam) which extended from Naganagar (Chulipuram), Tholpuram, Moolai, Ponnalai, Nelliyan – a whole range of villages having boundaries. Appropriate; Tamil poets called him Kularasa and Vavirasa (Kulam and vavi in Tamil mean lakes). At Uduthurai coin belonging to 1st Century BC was found. This coins must be inscribed by the King Perunahan.

Emperor Ilanahan


Ilanahan the son of Perunahan ruled Pallava Empire from 14 years BC for forty four years. The Tamil coins found during 1st Century BC had the inscription ‘Thasapeedan’. He may have been one of the ten sub-rulers of Kathirkamam. Naha saththan, Maha ay, Maha uthi might be the merchant groupings.

Emperor Nallanahan (Nalliyatkodan)


Ilanahan’s son Nallanahan being a warrior of strength ruled well supported and sustained Tamil poets and scholars, was a great ruler. From Pandinad Tamil Sangam poets came, sang their compositions before Nallanahan and were rewarded well. When poet scholar Natthathanar came from the mainland of India, he reached Pallavam crossing two townships, one was called Eaitpattinam, This was the defense fort between south of India and Pallavam and Nedunthivu Fort. Next was Velur. There in the large pond was filled with blooming lotuses. That was Velanai. Nalliyatkodan’s capital city was Amur, which is Amaiyur; now called Chulipuram. In the fields of Chulipuram, even now tortoises are seen moving around. Because the golden tortoise was trapped at Chulipuram it is called Ponnamaiyur. The rulership of Nallanahan was between 30 years AC upto 80 years AC. The work ‘Sirupanatruppadai carried the composition of Nallanahan with these details “Thiral Verunthiyit pooththa kerni viral vel ventri velur”

In 50 AC the ship belonging to the emperor of Rome Gladius was caught in the strong sea wind and was pushed ashore on the western shore of Naganadu called Kuthiraimalai. Those in the ship that hit the shore were sent by the King of Jaffna with the passenger went the Aratchi Amhassedor to Rome. Thus Cassichetty describes; thus it means Kuthiraimalai near Puttalam was under the rule of Pallavam.

* Kodan meant Nahan


Emperor Villi Athan


Villi Athan the son of Nalliyatkodan in the year 80AC ascended the throne of Pallava Empire. As he was an incomparable bow and arrow marksman he was called Villi. His given name was Athan with his land force and sea-force and capability he was a ruler of fame; Eelam’s great king. Pallavam was in the forefront in food production, cloth making, Pearl, Coral and elephant tusks, in all of these much trading activity took place. Villi Athan’s courage force-strength and arrow shooting expertise gave the impetus to war with many countries and overcome them. He overran the Kalappirar and Chalukkiyar by taking his forces to South India. Where he conquered and ruled over it as the Emperor of Thandai Nadu (Thandai Mandalam).

The Pallava flag was raised over Thandai Mandalam; the flag flow over the Thandai fort and the royal frank of Pallavam was put into use. The Nandi coins of Pallavam was the coinage of this land. He defeated the Chera, Chola, Pandya kings and established Pallava Empire in south India. Pallava rule’s traditions were preserved here. The Pallava Fort architectural arrangement was faithfully followed in structuring Kanjipuram city. The nandi symbol was made use of by the rulers. The Pallava civilization was spread around India by the Pallava rulers. The victories of the Pallava rulers in India that made Pallavam famous. The Pallava rulers from Pallavam set up their Kingdom at Kanjipuram in Pallava tradition. This is described in the epic Manimekalai thus.

The Pallava Kingdom centred at Kanjipuram and its Athan Thandai Chakravarthi (Thandai Emperor) later became narrowed to Athandai Chakravarthi. The first Pallava sovereign of India was Athandai Chakravarthi. The Thandai Mandalam of India was Thamilnadu; by other region of India it was called Dravidam (Thiruidam). The Chera, Chola and Pandinad did not achieve the title of Thamilnadu. Pallavanadu, Thandainadu, Pallavadesam, Thandaimandalam, Thiravidam, Thamilnadu all meant Pallava Nadu. Owing to the senthamil peoples rule of unbent scepter Thamilnadu achieved its name and fame. At Kanji and Chennai regions unflawed Tamil (Senthamil) was being spoken along with its flourishing and Tamil music being sung a rising in to natural stature was all due to the Pallava rulers.

Coming to Andra certain places have the names Eelamurugu (Krishna), Eelappoththam (Karimnagar) Lanka, Eelavaru (Kundur) Eelapanji Bahu (Nellur) Lankapuram and Lankeswaram are some of the names coming with Pallava rule. North west region of Kerala is known as Eelam and in Karnataka there is Eelathur (South Kannadam) Eelakalli (Hasan) are names of places and in Thamilnadu, Northwest of Thindukkal is Ilangikuraichchi is the name of a place also in Thamilnadu there is Eelavur (Sengalpattu) Eelagiri (Vada Atkadu) again Eelagiri (Salem) Eelamalai (Koyambattur) Eelakkurichi (Trichi) Eelathur (Thanjai) Eelakkulam (Tirunelveli) Eelathur (Neelagiri) are some names from Pallava rule.

Thandai mandalam, Pallavanadu, Pallavaram, Alagapuri (Kuberan, Imayamalai), Thiruchirapalli, Karanur, Vaithiyanatha echcharam (Ravanan), Thirulanga (Andra) Maamallapuram are all named by Eela Kings and Pallavas. The names in Pallavam and Lanka are in use in Andra, Malaiyala, Karnataka and Thamilnadu. Those who have gone from Pallavam and Settled in South of India have named these after their own place – names is stated Kathir Thanignasalam in his work on research of place names.

When Pallavas established their rule at Kanjipuram Kanji Empire, they and those who came with them named these places. Kuberan, Ravanan, Thirisiran, Karan, Thudanan, Thadakai and Subahu had named places when their rule that extended from the Himalayah region to South of India. The Pallava Empire extended from the whole of South India to most of North India. This period was from 2nd Century and further. Up to the 13th Century AC Pallava rule prevailed in India in certain places. In this period Pallava Kings named these places. The Pallavas origin with Pallavam is seen in copper plates and etchings of Pallava lineage says Professor S. Krishnaraja. The Pallava period of rulership India, Yava, Borneo, Parley, Poonan, Senla, Cambodia, Samba, Burma, Malaya, Singapure, Sumatra and Siam was the golden era of Tamil and Saivaism.

Emperor Pallavarasa


Pallavarasa’s rule extended from 100AC to 145AC. His daughter princes Nagadevi wedded the Chola ruler Ilangkillee. Their son was called Cholanahan. Coins found in these times have Sivalingam and peacock embossed on them. The son of Pallavarasa was named Valaivanan.


Emperor Valaivanan


Valaivanan ruled from 145AC up to 185AC. A ruler of grace and fame wedded Princes Vasamailai. They had a daughter of immense beauty called Peelivalai. When the Chola ruler, a relative visited Pallavam taken up by the beauty of Peetevalai wedded her. Their son Ilanthiraiyan became the ruler of Chola Nadu after Killivalavan, Erroneously he was by some referred to as the first Pallava ruler. Chozha’s son is the Chozha. He’s rulership was in the Chozha tradition. He was not a Pallavan but a Chozhan.

Emperor Kaalingarasa


Kaalingarasa ruled Pallavam from 185AC up to 226AC. This son of Valaivanan had excellent relations with Chozhanadu as his brother-in-law was the Chozha King Killeevalavan. There was co-operation between them. Pearl harbours and pearl fising of Ceylon were under the control of Pallava Emperors. Sambokovalam was the main fort of trade. A sailor Vusi – Vaihu – Su – On who visited Ceylon in the 3rd century AC recorded in chapter 699 of Taiping Ulan (Chinese Record) as pearls which was collected by Ceylonese were purchased by Kings of India and temples of India. Pearl habours and pearl fishing were under the continent of the North Kingdom of Ceylon.

Emperor Veeranahan


Veeranahan ruled Pallavam from the year 266AC until 306AC.

Emperor Nanthirasa


Nanthirasa son of Veenahan ruled the Pallava Empire from 268 BC to 306 BC

Emperor Paramesuvara Pallavan


Nandirasa Paramesuvara Pallavan ruled from Manipuram from the year 306AC up to the year 348AC. There were three Kingdoms in Ceylon in 4th Century AC, which was recorded in chapter 789 of Taiping Ulan.

Emperor Mathandaiyan


Mathandaiyan ruled Pallavam from the year 348AC up to 390AC. He was the son of Paramesuwara Pallavan and wore the warrior’s valour anklets around his ankles. He was given the name Mathandaiyan because of this; thandai meaning male-anklet. The Pallavas usually wore the valour-anklets. Meaning a great Pallava, the poets gave him the name of Valour Mathandaiyan wishing him great victories at war.

Emperor Vettinahan


Vettinahan the son of Mathandaiyan ruled Pallava Empire from the year 390AC until 441AC. He ruled from Manipuram. In confirming Pallava rule Cosmas the Greek writer has chronicled that from 5th Century AC there was at Nagadivu a separate kingdom.

Emperor Kalatsingan


The son of Vettinahan was crowned Pallava king in the year 442AC. He ruled until 485AC.

Emperor Rajasingan


Rajasingan ascended the throne of Pallava Empire in the year 486AC. This ruler ruled from Manipuram and was the ruler of most prosperous nine big ports of Ceylon. Trade was enormous, the articles of trade prodigious, the port of Kovalaturai busy. The trade with many countries of the world was growing owing to the product of Pallavam. The economy was strong and merchants from all parts of the world came to the port for purchase of goods and their ships were anchored at the ports. The Greek chronicler of the 6th Century AC, Cosmos Indiko Plusurus describes Lanka as being ruled by two kings, in the north, the Jaffna Kingdom being strong and it ports well-defended and in world trading at the forefront, confirming the rulership of the Tamils. Further, this chronicler goes on to describe, Manipuram, Urkavaturai, Kovalam (Sambu Kovalam) and also refers to Anaikottai. In small boats called ‘Vallams’ he describes that goods were taken to the interior of the land from the port. From Sambu Kovalam up to Manipuram and Paralai small boats (Vallams) carried goods which portrayed a busy sea-traffic that existed for a long period of time. In the 6th Century AC, the Pallava Kingdom changed its centering capital from Manipuram to Singanagar(Sanganai).

The stone inscriptions found all over the islard between the beginning of 6th Century BC to the end of 6th Century AC and the sasanans carried Tamil Brahmi lettering and Adhi Dravid Tamil lettering. The kings of that time had used Tamil letters indicating that Tamils inhabited these regions in large numbers, and the language of the rulership was Tamil. Tamil rulers headed these regions. Before Christ in the 1st Century more than 80 stone inscriptions the name ‘Naga’ referred to and confirms that Tamil Nagas ruled and they have made these stone inscriptions. In 550 AC, Greek merchant named Sobacca makes reference to a Lankan Kingdom in the northern most part ruled over by a separate ruler.

Emperor Rasapallavan


Rajasinghan’s son Rasapallavan reigned from the year 527 AC until 572 AC. During the 6th and 7th century after Christ, Eelak kasu (Eelam coin) was in use and this ruler may have put this coinage into use.

Chapter 1

Chapter 1


Ancient Kings

Punniyarasan


Humankind occurred at Adam’s Peak, and as human habitations enlarged moved on to Trincomalee and occupied the banks of the Mahaweli River that flowed into the sea there. Those who inhabited the bank of the River Mahawali and increased in population and moved westwards were called Nagars. Those who inhabited the Eastern Bank and increased moved eastwards and called Iyakkar. On Eelam’s westwards called Palavi’ Mandalam Nagas established the Kingdom of the Nagas. With this establishing of the Naga Kingdom, Mathottam, Lankapuri, Manimalai, Nagadivu were Naga Kingdoms. Where the Nagas lived was called Nagadivu. During the Kredayuga Nagadivu was called Punnyapuram. Punneyeswaram a Sivan Temple for worship with all facilities for temple serving families like drummers, priest and architectural specialist lived and it is not the temple but a Temple complex (Sivathalam). The king Punnyarasan ruled at this time and there fore called Punnyapuram. During the Kretayuga Civilisation (49900 BC to 33100 BC) was at peak point. During this yuga, in Nagadivu there existed a big kingdom; and this kingdom was thrice larger than Jaffna Peninsula and the islands around it.


The Ramayana epic writings have mentioned that during Krethayuga there existed a large kingdom at Nagadivu and that to locate the whereabouts of sita this large kingdom needs to be explored, Rama had said to Hanuman. The people who dwelt at Nagadivu were of an emancipated civilization Nagadivu had defense fortresses and the King’s ruling complex was within a well protected fort. Ravana made a flight towards the Naga fortress defeated the king and made his relative the new sovereign and rebuilt the Punneyapuram Siva Temple complex.

King Mareesan

At the end of the Tretha (33100 BC to 17500 BC) yugam (epoch), somewhere about 18000 BC years after Ravana’s death his blood relative Chitrangathan brought Ravana’s veena (yarl) and played the instrument and worshipped at Punyapuram lord Siva. The land after this was called Veenaganapuram meaning mellifluent site of the veena’s musical sweetness.



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LANKAPURI EMPEROR VIBEESANAN
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RAMA CONDUCTS CORONATION











King Chitrangathan






After the death of Mareesan, Chitrangathan became the ruler of Veenaganapuram. The Nagas worshipped siva as their traditional divinity and as such Punyapuram came to be called Nagakulaecharam and in time came to be called Naguleswaram. The Nagakula Ambal (Siva Sakti) came to be called Nagulambikai. We can therefore see that Nagulam (echaram) as it was called in the deep past became ‘Nagulam’ and later in Tamil called ‘Keerimalai’. When the name was ‘Nagulam’ the story of Nagulamuni a mendicant is said to be true. S. Rajanayagam has remakes that the story of the princess Maruthapuraveegavalli with the horse face was in doubt.









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King Tarahan







Dwaparayugam (17500 BC – 3100 BC) Tarakan, the younger son of Kasipa Munivar captured Nagadivu built a strong fortress and ruled from there. Tarakan was elephant like and he was called ‘Tharakan’ where Tarakan erected his fortress was therefore called Anaikottai. Tarakan was the third born son of Kasipa Munivar and Mayadevi. Darakan devotedly worshipped god Siva in deep meditation. As a result he ruled from Anaikottai, it is said for many thousand years from Anaikottai as stated in the Puranam. In the deeper time of the past men lived long. Tarakan married Chowri and she was his queen. Their offspring was a son named Asurendran.





The Devas could not defeat the asuras. The devas made their way to Mahakailasam and worshipped God Siva with melting hearts. From Siva’s central eye six sparks streaked out. Gods Siva commanded Agni (fire) and Vayu (Wind) carried the six sparks and placed them in the river. The river swirled and carried the sparks to saravana lake (Lotus Lake) when the six sparks reached the lake dried up, the lake which thus dried up is called Valukkai Aru, the meaning of Valukkai in Tamil means bereft, the lake has no water. The six-sparks (Murugan) was cherished and nursed by Karthigai maids by feeding him with milk. They were Muruga’s foster mothers. Where the Saravanai lake was the place was called Saravanai between lake saravanai and River Valukkai the sea splashes.





The young Murugan grew up and mother Parvathi gave the pointed spear (vel), that place is called Velanai. ‘Velanai’ in time in the patois of the people living there. Murugan was growing up and with his mother Parvati went to Mahakailasam and paid his loving respect to his father Sivan. In response to Siva’s command Muruga organized himself into warrior stance and warred with Tarakan. Tarakan entered Mount Kraunja and concealed himself. The opening in Mount Kraunja was merged in darkness and was called Alvai. From this gaping entrance Alvai Mount Kraunja was to the north east Mount Kraunja was a massive magic cave. When Lord Muruga came down from Mount Kailas with his massive assisting warriors, the contingent camped at Senthitsannathi, which was later known as Sellachannithi. It was from here that Muruga destroyed Mount Kraunja. On the destructor of ‘Mount Kraunja’ Tarakan came out. At the nearby Mayapuri (open space) the two battled fiercely. Muruga attacked Taraka’s neck with his vel (spear), the chain as which was around Taraka’s neck broke up and the pendant which was Vishnu’s chakkrayutham fell to the ground. At last King Tarakan of great strength moved into the heaven for his Valour. Where the battle was fought was at Mayakkai, Vadmaradchi. Where his Vishnu’s weapon chakrayutham broke up and fell was the village of Valli nachchi. Very much later Vallinachiyar found this shattered weapon (Chakrayathan) was ceremoniously placed at a temple and worshipped and this place of worship of chakrayutham was called Vallipuram. This place of worship Vallipuram was called Vallipuraalvar Kovil.










In tellectual opinion like those of Pandithamani Kanapathipillai referred to Jaffna’s culture as Kandapurana Culture, is suggestive of this consecration of the above his body. The pointed spear (vel) with which Muruga battled Taraka from his battling centre is Sellachchanithi. Also where Vallinachchi consecrated the chakrayutham for worship is Vallipuram Temple. This form of worship with the symbols of the divine is Traditional Tamil Worship. These places of worship, although not erected in accordance with northern Sanskrit scriptural mode, worshippers receive and experience divine grace and have attained fame as a result of the blessings poured onto the worshippers.





The Devas had been defeated by Tarakan and imprisoned by him and treated as slaves. Devas worshipped Vishnu (Thirumal) for these defeated Deva and Vishnu warred with Tarakan who defeated him and wrested the ‘Chakrayutham’ from him. With a 1000 flowers Thirumal (Vishnu) worshipped Siva for the returning to him of the weapon chakrayutham. Thirumal who conducted the worship with a 1000 Lotus flowers at last found that one flower was short to conduct the poojah (worship). At once he plucked his eye and completed the worship. Siva understanding this granted him the chakrayutham.









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Thuvaparaugam – Thiru Nadu – Map 2













  1. Manipuram




  2. Sampeswaram




  3. Sambukovalathurai




  4. Thiruvadinilai




  5. Ponnamaiyur




  6. Punniyapuram




  7. Anaikottai




  8. Selvasannithy




  9. Pallavam




  10. Tarahan’s Rule




  11. Velanur




  12. Saravanapoikai




  13. Manimalai




  14. Thiruketheeswaram




  15. Mathoddam




  16. Perunthurai




  17. Aruvi Aru




  18. Kuthiraimalai




  19. Kingdom of Singakiri




  20. Mahakailayam




  21. Lankapuri




  22. Thirikonamalai




  23. Asurapuri




  24. Mahenthiramalai




  25. Raniyathanmalai




  26. Thirukarasai Managar




  27. Thirumangalaipuram




  28. Agathiyathapanam




  29. Puttalam




  30. Singakiri Kotte




  31. Pulathiyanagar




  32. Yakkavur




  33. Mayavan Aru




  34. Muneercharam




  35. Chilapam




  36. Nikangamam




  37. Mavali Aru




  38. Suurapathman Rule




  39. Kalani Aru




  40. Sivanolipatham




  41. Pothiyil




  42. Kathirgama Aru




  43. Ukanthai




  44. Kathirgamam




  45. Kathiramalai




  46. Suran Kotte




  47. Veeramahendrapuram




  48. Mylravanan Kotte




  49. Theivam Hurai




  50. Galle Hurai




King Asurendran






The killing of Tarakan when it became known to his son Asurendran he made his way to the Singhagiri Fort (Sigiriya) and gave this woeful message to his father’s elder brother Singan rajah he wept and cried uttering incomprehensible words, filled with sorrow. After regaining himself he installed Asurendran BC 15000 as the sovereign of Anaikkottai the center of Kingship. For about just more than a 100 years Asurendran reigned rendering service to Saivaism and Tamil. He had 3 sons. Asurendran attained the feet of Siva. Asurendrans three sons performed tapas their attention on Siva. Gladdened by their tapas granted them the gift of making request from him. Following the death of Soorapathman, his brother Anaikannan was crowned king and ruled Veeramahendrapuram. Mathottam (Mannar) was ruled by Kamalakannan.





King Vithiyunmali






Vithiyunmali ascended the throne of Anaikottai. His reign is placed somewhere about 14000 BC, it is said in certain works, also that he ruled for quite a length of time with authoritative strength.





Sage Jamathagni suffered from a devastating disease (Gastric ulcer). This disease made his face terribly ugly. Samathu means great strength, agni means hunger (sadaragni) monstrous hunger, owing to unappeased hunger, burning stomach and stomach sores he was called Jamathagni His face become gaunt and lean and perhaps looked like a mongoose, owing to the grace of god he reached Punnyechcharam and commenced living in a mountain cave; daily he bathed in the holy waters at Kandagi, followed by worshipping Nagakulesuvarar and Nagula Ambiga; at Punniyaeiharam. It is said that owing to the divine grace of Punniyaeswarar his disease was cured. The work Thedchanakailasa manniyam carried this account. It is understood that the mount in which he lived is called ‘Keerimalai’. South of Keerimalai’s find ‘theertham’ (holy lake) and south of Keerimalai – Maviddapuram street is Punniyeswarar Temple. Although through the passage of time the spot has become a mound of sand, the villagers refer to the spot as ‘Kovitkadavai’ meaning where the temple stood more than 50 years ago when the stony area was dug Pnniyeshvaram Lingaperuman (image) appeared. Now it is seen installed at the Keerimalai Sivan temple. Had archaeologists under taken proper research greater historical truths would have been revealed what is now seen at Keerimalai, the water-spring lake is not Kandaki holy lake, also the sivan temple nearby had been built by the people just more than 100 years ago. About 10000 BC from Eelam (Lanka) Agastyar once again went to Bharath (India). Agastyar was accompanied at his request by Thiranathumagni son of Jamathagni Munivar. Thiranathumagni was Agastya Munis first student of language literature who composed the famous Tholkappiyam. Thirunathumagni (Tholkapiyar) was from Jaffna (Yalpanam) says Thenpuloliyur Kanapathipillai. Many research scholars associated with Tamil works express this view owing to the manner of language use and words which almost confirms that Tholkappiyar hailed from Pallavam. The use of the words mJ> mjh;> tpaok;> fpahok; gdhl;L> gd;dhil make room for this view









Around 10000 BC Jaffna (Yalpanam) was known as Nagadivu, Naganagar and Manipuram. At some time those sovereigns who were descendents of Mayon numbering 18, 18 Verls and 18 divisions of citizens went over India to enhance the land and elevate it in stature. Agantya Muni went with these categories of people. During Threthayugam before the rulership of Maliyavan, Sakkaran (Mayon) ruled from Manimalai at Mullaitivu. Mullailand belongs to Mayon. Mayon ruled there and headed the second Tamil assemblage (jkpo; Nguit) and encouraged the development of Tamil. At Manipuram such developing of Tamil was undertaken Verl, Verlalar headed smaller regions. They were sublangdoms being sub-rulers known as verl and verlalar and also referred to as ‘muthali’.





Tamil and Tamil civilization and Tamil lineage patterns and ways spread to Bharat by Tamils of Eelam. Siddhas of Eelam such as Agaetnyar and Pulathyar the descendant of fore region Mayon, eighteen Verlir and the inhabitants of Manipuram, commonalty of peoples contributed immensely Tamil civilization to peniusular India. The first Tamil Academy (Thamil Sangam) was inaugurated by Agatyar, Pulthiyar and Tholkapiyar along with others in about 9999 BC at Koodal Nagar, this appears in Swami Vipulanandas research work. His research was done in accordance with Tamil research discipline.





Lord Indran






From the beginning of Twabara Yugam at Nagadivu reign by Kings has been without break according to historic evidence. About the period 6000 BC Indran who suffered a curse was born in a fisher family at Manipuram. He plied his vocation in the sea of Manipuram; the time for redemption from the curse was nearing. Manivannan appeared as a giant shark and posed a threat to the fisherman Indran. Finally all the fishermen who were fishing combined and dragged the giant shark to shore. To their amazement the shark vanished. Manivannan the shark fisherman stood with conch and chakra (circular weapon). The fisherman took the appearance of Indran. Indran overjoyed paid obeisance and cried ‘Thirmal my peramal yon appeared and gave me redemption from the curse; henceforth all who suffer from curse shall find redemption here; where you stood sanctified your foot prints the place and shall always be there. You played in our ocean swimming and those who bathe in these holy waters will find relief from their sins caused by their short comings and on earth enjoy prosperity and there after attain your lotus feet; thus the overjoyed Indran fisherman made request to Manivannan. Manivannan responded favourably and his foot prints were embedded in the sands. From then on the spot made holy by Thirumal (Manivannan), was known as Thirvadnilai and Mani pallavam. For a space of time Indran reigned from Manipuram, Manipallavam. From then on the ‘Festival of Indra’ (Indravizha) became yearly a festive occasion.





Where Indran ruled and where the ‘Festival of Indra’ became an annual occasion of Fertility was called Indranagar (Chulipuram). Elders say that in time Indranagar through lingual changing effects in pronunciation was called Indranai. Also Singainagar in time came to be known as Changanai. The literary work called ‘Manimekalai’ clearly reveals, that Nagadivu was pallavam. Vallipura Alvar’s work Vallaithirupathikam calls pallavam as pallavam. Selvachchannithi Kanthan Thirupuranam identifies Manipuram as Manikkarai and that is said to be the Jaffna inland regions; it is also stated that manipuram at one time meant the whole of Jaffna Peninsula.





The ‘thandai’ (male anklet worn on one foot) adorned Thirumal’s gentle feet caressed the sands; the place is called Thiruvadi nilaithurai. It was also known as Pallavathurai. The stone carving of Thirukovil of 1225 after Christ of January 20th beam the inscription that Emperor Visayalingam was the King of Pallavam; also Emperor of Eelam made up of Iyakka, Naga and Rajarata regimes Thiri buvana Emperor. Kings who hailed from Pallava Royal family were known as Pallavar. The composition called segarajasegaram (work) carries the description that Singainadu and Singainagar was also known as Kandy. In Singanagar Kandy (Lake) had been crafted Pallavam was called Kandynadu stated in a book Tamil Navalar Saritham. From Manipuram (Chulipuram) along singaingar (Changanai) upto Nallur, the roadway is called Peruntheru (large roadway). The rulers of Singai’s Chariot travelled along this roadway. Later from the time of the rulership of Subramaniam, the roadway from Moolai (%sha;) up to Nallur was called Peruntheru (large roadway). The roadways used by the chariot to of rulers were called ‘peruntheru’ in the mannar of convention Chinese pilgrims who visited ‘Thiruvadi nilai’ (the place of holy feet) have stated that the impressions of the feet were indeed seen. Until 16th century these feet impressions were visible, as time passed, the sea moved and has covered these impressions. Manivannan (Thirumal) had a holy bath at this spot, Ponnamaiyur Manivannan up to date take a holy bath at this place.





The gentile feet of Manivannan caressed and made impression Nagadivu was called Manipallavam. As time passed Manipallavam came to be known as Pallavam. Around 5000 BC a miracle of Thirumal occurred at Manipallavam. At the pallavam sanctified waters fishermen fished; a golden tortoise appeared and the fisher men tried to capture it in their net. The golden tortoise evaded capture and for quite a length of time made fool of the fisherman. The unrelenting fishermen put their effort together and captured this golden tortoise and brought it ashore. The tortoise managed to escape and moved speedily westwards. The fishermen chased after it and the tortoise ceased to move. As soon as it stopped moving the golden tortoise turned into stone. The voice of Manivannan (Thirumal) was heard from the skyway above saying that a temple be raised there for him. The ruler of Manipuram built a temple for Manivannan. Because a golden tortoise was captured Manipuram came to be called ‘Ponnamaiyur’ (Thevillage of golden tortoise) and also ‘Amaiyur’ (Tortoise village). At present the place where the golden tortoise turned into stone from ‘Ponnamiyur’ came by change of uses later Ponnalaiyur. The ruler at that time built on that hallowed spot of the stone tortoise Thirumal’s image and raised a temple with seven – tiered streets of worship.





At the seventh street tier entrance a pond was built and entrance Lord Ganesha statue was erected. Because the miracle and the structure were made at Ponnalai, the temple was called ‘Ponnalayam’. The land where this Temple stood was called the Sathuranga Manatidal. Twice a year ‘Mayavanar’ (Thirumal) is take for holy dip at Pallava holy waters (Thirvadinilai). This is followed annually.





During Dwaparayugam (4500 BC)





The ruler of Cholanad Musukunthan battled Lord Indran according to historical evidence. Because of a curse or disease the ruler’s handsome countenance turned monkey-like. As such the name Musukunthan of the ruler is not his own name but because of the reason of monkey-like face. In India this monkey-face could not be cured; there fore the ruler made a pilgrimage to Manipallavam and reached Thirvadinilai. Here he bathed in the holy waters and worshipped continually at the Siva Temple at Chulipuram and it is stated that the monkey-like countenance changed. This particular temple is now covered with earth. This temple is situated at a point between. Veemarasan Kollai (king palace) and Sambukovalaturai and is at ‘Paralaiveli’. As the Chola ruler worshiped here and was cure of his monkey-face, this sivan temple is called Sambesuvaram. The port where the Chola King arrived and stepped down to proceed for worship to the nearby temple is called Puliyanturai. The regrettable fact is the excavation has not been carried out to reveal the temple of Sambesvaram. Yogi Karthigesu in the 20th century erected a Sivan Temple to signify Sambeswaran Temple. This is the Sivan Temple now seen at Chalipuram. Sambukovalam is the major port to North India is of course with reference to Pallavam there had been frequent travel of vessels between these places. In 3rd century B.C pearls from Eelam reached Magada Kingdom in referred to in 3rd century BC in Arthashastra.





King Chithrangathan






Sometime around 3100BC the Panch Pandavas rule prevailed in India. Owing to unfrozen circumstances in order to meet urgently Dharma, the elder brother; Arjuna walked into Draupatha’s queens quarters as this was a breach of royal practice Vijayan to absolve himself of this infringement of practice was under advisory direct on to make pilgrimage southwards for one year to places. Sanctify per and bathe in the holy waters, and undertake worship. Indran’s son Arjuna, travelled to Thiruvadinilai where Indran rid himself of the curse on him and purify himself by bathing in the holy waters.





Arjuna on coming to Pallavam, bathed at the Pallava (Thiruvadinilai) Theertham (Pallavam) at the boundary of Manipuram. As it was practice for Chitrangathai to bathe at Manipuram (Chulipuram) Arjuna on seeing her fell in love with her. Chithrangathan the ruler of Manipuram arrested Arjuna and jailed him. On learning that Arjuna is one of the Panjapandavas married Chithrangathai to Arjuna. Arjuna lived here for a time and returned homewards, Mahabaratha epic tells that the flag of Manipuram bore the figures of a lion and the Palmyrah.





King Chitravahanan






Dharma performed Rasasuyayagam and the yaga horse came to Manipuram, chithrangathai’s son Chitravahanan caught the horse and tied it up. Arjuna who came in search of the horse was defeated by Chitravahanan. Chitrangathai rescued Arjunan. Arjunan saved his life because it came to be known that Chitrangathi was Arjuna’s spouse. Around 3019 BC he ruled the country.





King Chitrasenan






Following Chitrangathans reign his son Chitravahanan ruled. Chitrasenan reigned after Chitravahanan 2941BC.





King Vairavahanan






Vairavahanan ruled from somewhere about Kaliyuga year 2860BC. He was the son of Chitrasenan. The flag of Manipuram carried the emblem of the Palmyrah and Lion the name Panainadu was perhaps in use because of these. Arjuna returned to Pallavanadu to purchase coral beads. As a result engaging himself in picking up corals without the authority by the Eelam sovereign he was apprehended on the order of the king and kept in prison. There he met the princess Pavalakodi and fell in love and married her and lived here for sometime. Here Sambukovalatarai was famous for the nine kinds of precious beads (Navamanis). Merchant and rulers came here and purchased these priceless beads.





* owing to the damage of the ola scripts due to white ants the continuity lacked





King Maninahan






About the year of 2500 BC Manipallavam was ruled by the king Maninahan. Owing to the precious nine type of beads found in Nagativu the place was called Manipuram. Maninahans rule was full of Valour and the place gained fame. His name he gave to the kingdom he ruled – it was called Maninagapuram Naganagar. Owing to the fact that the record carrying at leaved manuscripts were damaged or eaten by white ant the continuity of research of the period lacked order.





King Elelan






This king round about 2000 BC was a Pallava ruler. During his reign merchants engaged in trade by carrying coral and pearl to India and other countries trade during Elelan’s reign achieved prominence. There was a naval force to protect the trade and traders. On the seven seas the vessels of Pallavam carrying flag the pennant of nandhi travelled. As they sailed they sang aloud elelo! elelo! Foreign vessels tarried at Kovalam as it was an important international trade port. Where elelo sound was raised sea pirates no alien vessels never attempted to attack and plunder the cargo. The reason for this is the valourous naval Force. Elelan vessels traversed the seven seas back and forth is told by seaman. The Pallava kings strengthened their naval forces in order to overcome the trade competing Chera, Chola and Pandiya vessels. The tri-united Chera, Chola and Pandiya efforts to attack with the pallava trade vessels was the reason for the Pallava kings to destroy the united effort at sea itself.





Nedunthivu, Urathurai, Karaidivu, Pallavaturai (Thiruvadinilaiturai) Kovalam (Sambuthurai), Parutiturai, and Nagarkoil are seven places where naval bases of strength existed. The navy, naval vessels and naval security bases of excellence existed during Elelan’s period of rulership. Traditional weapons such as spear, arrow and sword were in common use by the fighting force. Catamaran, ura, boat, vallam (a type of sea vessel), nava, thimil, vattai, padahu, machchuvai, ship, vangam and odam were the various types of sea vessels used in accordance with the area and need. In building ships Valvettiturai was foremost as a seaport. Although the seven seen were traversed, Elelan’s vessels would return to port was the belief of the people of the land.





The Pallava Sailors who steered the vessels were experts. In the same manner vessels sailing the deep seas had captains (Meehaman, kPfhkd;) of excellence to bring their ship ashore. Those who steered the ships were known as ‘Guhan’ and ‘Malumi’ (Sailor).





King Nandhiraja






The emblem of Pallavam was ‘nandhi’ and the flag was called ‘nandhikodi’, as such the pallava king was known also as Nandhirajah. About the year 1900, Nandhirajah ruled Pallavam.





King Manikkanahan






About the year 1800 BC Manikkanahan ruled Pallava country Manikkarasa or Manirasa as he was called ruled Tirikonamalai (Trincomalee) and built the Konamamalai temple, it is said. In Manigramam (muneria) he encouraged the production of ‘Mannikkakal’ – precious stone.

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Political Science of Singai Pallavas

The Pallava rulership reveals the heights to which Tamil civilisation reached. The Pallava rulership made eighteen divisions of their subject. All subjects received rights in an equitable manner. All people were considered equal. The security and rights of the people received the assurance of the ruler. Those who were conferred greater responsibilities were the channels through which the ruler was acquainted with the needs of the people and ruler accordingly to ensure social equilibrium. In knowing the peoples desires and short comings the ruler provided a stable background for his people. The people who were his subjects were considered his people and the people considered the king next to the devine; the sovereign was docked upon by the people. The sceptre was not allowed to bend. The people engendered a loyalty to the ruler in their hearts and were loyal to their land. The love and loyalty between ruler and people had a healthy interaction.

The ruler may be on the throne in the Kolumaadapam or in court with its members in the Aththanimandapam the peoples welfare was paramount. In court there were his advisors made up of several tiers his ministers, sages realised souls gave advice to the ruler. People brought their imbalances and complaint to the ruler. He was the protector of the people. He was their security moat defending them against adversity. His crown does not proclaim his loftiness but signifies the responsibilities he carries towards his people. Those who come to the ruler for relief with complaints, even if there is no witness, or lack of knowledge relating to the accused; it is his duty to find the accused, one or many and bring justice to the affected party and mete out punishment to the wrongdoer.

The country belonged to the King; the right to get benefit from it is the people given by the sovereign. To battle for the land the people considered it their right. To be wounded in battle and lose their lives for the king was their name and fame. Although the king was the repository of executive authority, the king is responsible to the royal court. The king will be seated on the throne, his royal priest (Siddha or Thavasi ) will be seated near him. To his right there will be the five – fold members of Royal assembly to his left will be the tiers of authoring from his commander, verls or verlalars, spies of the kingdom fighters and the town people. With the acknowledgement of this many tiered court, the king performs his duties. Royal lineage is the central factor behind the personage recognised as the king. Any one with defect in the royal line is rejected and there will not be the ceremony of crowing. The sceptre in the rulers hand represents that justice would be done to all. The sceptre would become bent when there is a failure of justice and the people will reject the ruler.

The rulership of Nallur became affected with the ageing of the great king Pararasasegaran and when Sangili one of his sons not an offspring of the royal alliance wrested power by imprisoning his father the king and ascended the throne; but, neither the court nor those in palace service at the lower ranges and the citizens refused to accept him. Without crown or sceptre, Sangili exercised his rule. There are many Tamil works on justice and adjudication; these rulers who exercised their authority without affecting justice were upheld as noble rulers. The Siddhas , Sages mendicants, men of intellect and poetic groups from coming with the few of time, period to period were responsible for the evolving of judicial traditions and pertinent features to justice and judicial norms.

In the king’s court were those persons who gained distinction in the different fields of Tamil heritage. The successor to the throne the crown prince is decided upon when the king is alive. The son of the king and queen, who has had a complete training and has achieved competence is the sixty – four arts and craft will be crowned as the one next in the royal line. If there had been no prior decision on the crown prince the titular queen’s first son will become the heir to the throne. It is usual to organise competitions in the different fields for the princes who are the sons of the departed king, in order to make an excellent choice as to who should be crowned. The five fold court – groups of royal assembbly participate in making a choice and crowning the would be king. The general acceptance of the court is essential to setting upon the choice for crowning as the future king. When such conditions for making a choice as to the future ruler became weakened or relaxed that is the kings son can only became king being the vital factor, lost importance, the quality of Tamil rulership gradually declined the most outstanding prince of royal blood ought to be crowned. The king had the right to choose his heir from the royal families as crown – prince; to ascend the thrown after him. The normal choice to be the future king is the offspring of titular head the king and his queen in addition this crown – prince should be a saivate (follower of Siva). This qualification are imperative to be crowned as king; any other categories of persons are not fit to be referred to as belonging to the royalty, ruler or prince. This is the tradition and connection associated with the titular head upheld by the land, qualifications and conditions of the similar nature are applied to fill the various positions in the kingdom (rulership) when a vacancy arises.

The subjects got trained in the sixty-four arts and craft; those who show excellence in these 64 fields in the annual competitions are awarded prizes at the festival of Indra (Indravizha) by the king. Those who receive appointments to positions will continue to hold it until they are through ageing or physical condition unable to fulfil their functions.

Constitution

The constitution of Singai was unwritten this was called ‘nadduvalamai’ or thesavalamai (the country’s customs and practices). Naddu Valamai was in force all sub-rulers and chieftains also followed the same Ceylon. Thesavalamai (the countries laws) is made up of the views in the works on justice, along with the wisdom of sages directed towards evolving a regimen for human culture and the practices that are supportive towards wholesome social living. Which have been in usage for a period of time. Tamil academy played an important role in making customs and practices. The ruler was the executive authority of the decisions made by the court headed by the King himself. The main theme of rulership was ‘one who protects before the occurrence’ .

The ruler was always mindful in having troops of great strength; also these troops had to be in peak training without lapse. The Singai rulers regiments were made up of the charity troops, elephant mounted troops, horse regiment, infantry, spy-force, and naval force in all six-fold troops. Weapons were kept in prime condition through a complete survey for defects which are made war-worthy at the iron – foundry in the hands of expert ironsmiths.

The Kings had the system of reliving the disabled soldiery and the ageing. Those who were retired for these reasons were replaced annually by younger fighters. The spy-force functioned directly under the supervision of the king. There was also a personal protective force for the king. During times of battle mercenaries too were secured for service.

The ruler’s embellishments were the regimental forces, the pennant, the subjects, the sounding drum, horse, elephant, chariot, garland and crown. The ruler must posses the capacity to fulfil the hopes of aspirations of the people he ruled. The Singai Pallavas were loved by the subjects in the sense of being godly in taking care of them to their almost. The sovereign was the repository of the people’s power and was a father; he was subject to justice and orderly moral living . The Kings exercised their authority for the welfare of the people and the people acted for the welfare of the Kings. An unbent unwavering sceptre representing the rule meant that the people submitted themselves to the authority represented by the sceptre.

The outlook of the Singai people was wholly patriotic to their kingdom and loyal to their Kings. The Singai ethic was to enhance the stature of their land throng the Pallava arts and culture; through the convention and traditions that were engendered by that land down the ages and there by to preserve the unique nature of their nation and the emphasis was on work and the gains from work was stressed in the socio cultural falric of Singai country. This may be called nationalism. To preserve the land the Pallava ethic was nurtured and, love for the land. Those who embraced the Pallava ethic also protected the land from outside depredations. The Singai rulers and the people understood that the love for their land and the Singai ethic would do the almost to up life the land and protect its security.

The practice in Singai Nadu was to request the heals of family heads who were gather public place as to whom they gave their political support. Following this, they would be requested to by a show of hands to register the votes for the persons who names were given. If more than one person hand been named. Finally aggregating the support against each name, the appointment of Peanmahan would be conferred. This practice continued up to the 20th century in approaching the Village had man and the Udaiyar. In only names of single persons to the positions were given, they would be appointed without a show of hands to assess the support. This practice came down from Pallava times up to the 20th Century Perumahans were the elected members of Royal Assemble by the citizens of Singainadu emphasising the people’s participation in the administration of the land.

The Perumahans thus elected by the people would bring to the notice of court the state of the peoples outs and inner life, their need, the custum associated with their work. The Perumahan committee in terms of their functions was made up of eighteen. Their functions, mainly, represented the different types of work and in the kings court all work an workers received representation. The Perumahan were accorded a special status ad authority in the rulership.

Judicial coral (the ruler of conduct, customs and conventions governing the peoples lives)

The Medical Council

This committee was made up of the Kings physicians and surgeons numbering five. They were proficient in their fields of work. They were responsible for the care in maintaining of the health of the palace rodent the palace workers and the forces. The fife member chief committee was compound of the chief committee, the araverl committee medical committee the nimithar committee (Astrologer committee and the minister’s committee composed the five member chief committee.

The subjects of the land on the basis of their occupation were made up to eighteen work related subjects. One member of each of these 18 occupational divisions were members of the King assembly, these members were called chieftains, who received much respect from the people and they possessed competence of the work related to their division. They were selected by the Vellalas for such representation from the regions in which they dwelt. The verl (Vellala) visited the ejective regions and requested the family heads to a public assembling spot and quarried them as to whom the preferred to be selected for representation at the Royal assembly. If more the one name was given there would have to be a selection. The verl would then go on to the procedure of selection the raising their lands in approval. And as to who should be finally selected would be made on this procedure of selection as chieftain. If only one name was mentioned there would be no electing on the bares of raising hands and the one person who become Perumohan. This practice continued up to the 20th century in electing the village headman and ‘Udaiyar’ (Overall Head). This practice belonged to the Pallava period.

The Royal assembly in which these representatives were members; would appraise the conditions for inner and outer life of the people of their region, of their needs and how well the region functioned. Thus the Five – fold chieftain committee made up of lighten members represented all the work – segments. The Perumahan enjoyed a position of importance and regard in the Royal assembly.

Judicial Council

There member of the caravel committee wore proficient in ‘Theravalamai’ (The tradition) and convention in practice in the society) their knowledge of the aram literary works highlighting wholesome social factices and the total of rulership practices. The Praverl group was the pivotal factor in the functioning of the Royal assembly. The practices in their totality made up of traditions, contentious and time – tested ways farmed the basis for the functioning of this committee. And to make the functioning of this committee more relevant to society, was decided int five segments, Arcenkoory avai expert views on convention traditions and related factors, and functioned in defined fields as court of Justice, Tribunal, Panchayam. This committee ensured the rights of the people, meting of punishments for those who committed violations of practice with the objective of maintain. Social felicity and promoting community consciousness in the people. The sceptre represented the upholding of the welfare of the people as member of society. As such the ruler’s main task was the welfare of society as a whole.

At present what is called Thesavalamai was fashioned by the Colonial rulers to their own advantage to Pacillate their governance and there were made laws. What was omitted from the fund of ‘Thesavalamai’ covering a large period formed a large section and only what was necessary to the colonial rulers gained the status of law. What should kept in mind is that what was called ‘Thesavalamai’ is the high point of the Tamil’s administrative culture linking several periods of Pallava rule. This is stated by V.T.Thamiln, lecherer in law. Although Thesavalamai had under gone change through colonial rule, it represented, practices that were in force in Lanka per thousands of years.

‘Thesavalamai’ formed the basis of rulership for the whole of Sri Lanka and received significance being appropriate for the whole land. After the arrival of the colonial British rule it became confined only to the north of Sri Lanka in connection with property rights and where ever the northerners lived ‘Thesavalamai’ governed property rights. The ‘Thesavalamai’ made clear that a man may have more than one spouse and the objective could be that women ought to have care divorce and re-marriage are features of ‘Thesavalamai’. On the whole ‘Thesavalamai’ had the welfare of women in mind in granting women in mind in granting women the right for divorces and widows to re-marry. Thus the status of women in Tamil society of the Pallavas was of the high order.

The Board of Ministers

In the five-fold chieftains committee the ministers committee had importance. The description of this committee is found with some variations in literacy works. Connected with this committee. One chief minister of distinction and sagacity headed the ministerial committee and when there were four capable deputy ministers. Many function were handled by the ministerial committee.

  1. Agriculture
  2. Income of the land
  3. Taxation
  4. Moral and ethics institutions
  5. Nurturing welfare of the people
  6. Security of the land
  7. The palace – serving staff
  8. The supervision of the function of the other committee

This ministerial committee was invested with the function of overseeing the sovereign’s welfare and the taxation for war-purposes which were discussed and received before making decisions. The ministerial committee which had five functioning as chief and deputy ministers. Under them functioned the commander of the forces, the spiritual ambassadors and spy group as members. The make – up of this ministerial committee had secular and religions functions under it.

Sound to the king was the prince in authority next prince next come the ministerial committees head. During times of was the commander of the forces functioned with authority. The Kadai Kappalar head of palace security took care of the palace and all articles belonging to the palace. Also the security of the palace and fort came under him. When ever there was conflict in opinion as to the laws and their functioning in definite situations, the King’s court with its five-fold chieftain’s committee took over the responsibility of decision making.

Singai Royal Assembly

The King court was made up five fold

Perumahans committee – 18 members.

Ministers committee – five members

Araverl committee – five members

Nimithar committee – five members

Medical committee – five members

Chamber of commerce – made up of trading and commercial numbering five

The priest of the Pallava ruler, who was a sidddha or mendicant. The verls numbering five The chief commander of the forces. Spy-group head The Elephant – troop head, The Horse – troop head, Kadai Kappalar – Store and security of palace. The prince and others were in the King’s court when it assembled in times of emergence the five – fold chieftain’s committee, ministerial committee heads of other committees and the commander of all forces assembled.

Chapter 5

Chapter 5



Singai Kingdom



King Kulasekaran




During the year 1619 AC, Sangili II killed the king Rasasingan through intrigue. While the battle was raging the Ethirmannasinga Pararajasekaran’s elder daughter Suntharavalli's spouse and brother-in-law of the deceased Rasasingan took the sceptre and crown and left the palace. The Nallur court and the families of royal lineage by assent crowned Kulasekaran as the king of Nallur Kingdom in the year 1619 AC. The relative thought marriage tie Senarathan the king of Kandy to Ethirmannasinga Pararasasekara Chakravarti and his sons Kumarasingan and Wijeyapalan were present as relatives at the crowning ceremony of Kulasekaran. Kulasekaran ruled from (Chulipuram) Singa Nagar with contingents of troops, flag, chariot and royal accomplishments. King Senarathan attended the crowning ceremony registering his support for him. These happenings have been misconstrued by writers who have stated that the Kandyan rule stretched into Nallur.



They have also added that for the reason of not having troop-strength the Portuguese did not battle. Therefore they didn’t claim the rulership from the descendant king at Nallur. Vannirasa help was requested and King Kulasekaran battled at Thondamanaru and Thenmaratchi against the Portuguese but without success. It is a fact that Sangili II governed in a capacity of Portuguese dominance and that Nallur Kingdom did not lose its sovereignty and the rule continued from Singanagar under Kulasekaran. Although Nallur came under the Portuguese, King Kulasekaram ruled the Singai Kingdom with the support of Kandian King and Vanni Cheftains who were under him. That the descendent titular head should rule Singai nadu was desired because if Singai fell then it would be followed by the fall of Vanni and Kandy into alien hands. The Kandyan ruler Rasasingan married Singairuler Kulasegaran’s daughter Thamilmathevi in the year 1635 AC. Rasasingans son, Ethirmannasuriyan has stated that his mother’s country is Jaffna and that this region did not come under the rulership of the Portuguese or Dutch (year 1690AC) .



The subjects were largely loyal to King Kulasekaran and he followed the Singai traditions in ruling from Singai (Chulipuram ) in competition to the aliens at Nallur. In the year 1655 AC war flared up at Chulipuram against the Portuguese. The battle was a difficult one and in desperation the ruler at Chulipuram gave worship to Lord Vinayagar and batches of crows flew down and pecked at the eyes of the Portuguese and caused injury. Kulasekaran could have killed Portuguese but because he did not inflict death on them. They requested the ruler to join them, that they would help him to rule and for him not to claim rulership and to give this assurance in writing. The King Kulasekaran refused this request of the Portuguese. ‘He who gives up his independence merely for the sake of the safety of the present then he does not deserve freedom’ thus Benjamin Franklin, the great American Stated. For the sake of ones own security to give up the land’s sovereignty is not admissible and Kulasekaran continued to battle. At this time Vanni was being ruled by Kulasekaram and Kailaivanniyan who were of the royal descent of Singainagar. As they were relatives to these Singai rulers. They paid tribute and gave aid to Kulasekaran to stabilise his rule at Pallavam. The vanni rulers were always ready to stand by him.





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KING KULASEKARAN 1619 - 1665



The royal families never gave into the Portuguese to them it was an act of treachery. Those of the royal lineage never served as underlings to the aliens. The madappalli servers never acted in mannar of opposing or letting them down in a treacherous manner the royalty or their heirs. It was Paranirubasingan as chief mudali and Pararasasingan as Village chieftain appointed by the Portuguese, and in their time that the Nallur Kandasamy Temple was brought down to ground level through heavy blows with iron implements in a crude manner. In place of the demolished temple of Lord Muruga (Kandasamy) a Catholic Church erected. The lands wealth, treasures and savings were all plundered.



Saiva temples were demolished and the patriotic persons of the land killed. In the years 1518 AC, 1543 AC, 1561 AC, 1570 AC and 1592 AC the Portuguese forces made overwhelming attacks but failed to succeed. But the inward down reaching antagonisms in the Tamils opened the doors to alien conquest. Paying of tributes, trade dominance, religious conversion assumed the nature of problems of an unsolvable nature is stated by E.M.V. Nagunathan (11.03.2002 – Virakesari). In 1620 AC, Sangili ruling at Nallur was arrested and the man who led the Portuguese and helped to identify him was ‘Kakkai’ is known from notes made by the Portuguese ‘Kakkai’ and his relatives converted to Christianity and worked with the Portuguese governance and held the positions of Nithippandaram (Treasury chief) , store-house manager, mathakkan, mudaliyar, maniyagar, udaiyar (positions of control) given by the conquerors. Those who held these positions had wealth, influence, name and power of office, accumulation of property and power flowing from appointments to posts of significance. ‘Kakkai’ was supposed to be the palace-cook. Kakkai (Thambi) is referred to as Kakkai Vanniyan by Pulavar was it with the intention of concealing the truth? Or to hide the cruelties and harassments of the Dutch? That they governed well says Pulavar, why?



Pararasasekara Chakravarti during the year 1478 AC and the outcome of the relationship (outside royalty) between Valliammai the ruler, Paranirubasinga Mudali was born in the year 1470. This Paranirubasingan committed treachery to the ruler Sangili in 1620 AC; he converted to Christianity. In the year 1620 AC his son Pararasasingan of the madappalli grouping was the son of Parunirubasinga Mudali, is a conflict in the dates that discounts credibility being distanced from truth owing to baseless tradition. Because in the year 1543 AC was put to death by Sangili according to father Gnapragasar. Because for 160 years that in up to 1621 he held high office under Portuguese rulership and his son Pararasasingan was made mudaliyar, an official position. These facts are not only at variance with truth but concocted. Paranirubasingan died and after quite a long period of time Pararasasingam was born. Therefore the said Pararasasingan is not the son of Paranirubasinga Mudalis son. Pulavar has hidden facts, that is not mentioning the Tamil kings who ruled after 1560 AC. Prince Kathirkamasekeran is not let out and contrary to royal tradition that the son born to Valliammai, Paranirubasinga Mudali is said to be of royal lineage.



The madappalli people are according to one work a caste that came from India. Also Yalpana Malaiyar has state that the ruler Sangili gifted 500 villages to Paranirubasingan and earned from him the title madappalli. But the details of the gifted 500 villages are unmentioned. Sangili has appointed them madappalli. But the details of the 500 villages are unknown. During the rule of Sangili there were only 158 villages under him as such he cannot have gifted 500 villages. There is no truth in such statements. The word madappam and madappalli give different meanings. The pulavar (an academic) did not know the difference? Further there are in his work many concocted tales about madappalli.



The unconvential relationship between king Pararasasekara and woman working in the food preparing section of the palace resulted in the birth of Paraniruba Singan and thereby a distnct caste evolved called madappalli. These madappalliyar are a feature of Jaffna society. The people who did madappalli work (preparation of food) were called by the Vellalas as madappalliyas is stated by Simon Casie chetty and he contradicts that they came from India. There is nothing about a relationship without marriage. He further goes on to say is his memoirs that during reign of the Dutch Governor Vanree, the these people worked in the kitchen section of the Brahmins (Madappalli). K. Muttukumaraswamippillai of Chunnakam is definite that madappaliyar did not came from India. They were the workers of Kitchen section of the Jaffna Palace. Relying upon the traditions followed by Pallavanad, what Muthukumaraswamiappapillai has stated is the truth. Confirming with the Tamil tradition followed there were 18 types of subject groups under the royalty and of these madappalli is one. Those who committed treachery to the king by identifying themselves with the Portuguese faced the disdain of the loyal, subjects of refined qualities who spoke of this group of people as being unworthy. The Portuguese titled these unworthy people as ‘Mudali’ and gave them responsibilities of office a cold war started between the Vellalar and Madappalliyar. This cold war between the two sections of society created problems for the Portuguese.



Muthukumaraswamipillai elaborating on the topic of frictional conditions says that the Portuguese created further tensions between the Vellalas and Madappalliyar by giving them the office of Kiramathikaram (Village administrator) and conferring the title of mudali which should naturally go to the Vellalas, aggravating social disharmony and the Vellalas ; here it must be understood that there are gentleman farmers and tilling farmers nevertheless tensions between these two groups. Using their influence through the ‘mudali’ title, the madappalliyar in order to serve them got down prison slaves. In 1834 AC a court case was filed that insult was cavred by addressing them scornfully madappalyar, judgement was not in favour of the madappaliyar grouping, Muthukumara Swamipillai has made it clear that madappaliyar are pure Tamils further there are distinctions of Rasamadappalliyar and Kamaramadappalliyar. Paranirnbasingan and Pararasasingan are relatives by deed. Sangili was treacherously let down by Paranirbasingan and Pararaasingan belonged to the madappalli clan as such treachery which turned over Sangili in 1543 AC and the Paranirubasinga Mudali who died in the year 1630 have no connection. Both are different persons belonging to different times.



Those who gave support to the aliens rule and who registered themselves newly as ‘mudalis’, and those who were treacherous to the ruler and country and earned their titles, and those who were newly brought down by the Portuguese from India and settled in the land giving them the title ‘mudali’ ever despised by the people loyal to the Singai rule. Those who came newly from India, supporters of the aliens and thereby influential brought down slaves who were sold at a price and treated them as underlings equated the Vellalars of the land at the level of bought slaves causing outrage to the latter. The vellalas displayed their opposition to the new comers. Those who worked for the Portuguese and who were holding powerful office under the Portuguese tried their best to undermine to patriotic and the loyal and bring them into a very lowered position under the aliens.

The lands beneficial orderly arrangements that prevailed as traditional out flow from one phase to another were disturbed and conflict situation arose as a result resulting in confrontations. The Tamil culture which lived in harmony, those in one realm of work not quarrelling with those in other realms of work was on the upsurge. The introduction of slave-workers disturbed the harmonious work-pattern, a condition of inferiority and superiority plagued the Tamil society which here to lived and worked together moving society as a whole in a manner of oneness got upset by the changes resorted by the camp-followers of the invaders. Differences became sharp and untouchability poisoned society. The coming of the Indian slave-workers brought the dis-harmonious patterns in Indian society. The Singai civilisation which evolved a fluency in society was disturbed and the resulting inter caste work tensions upset the equilibrium of an evolved social culture.



Kakkai the traitor interacted well with the Portuguese commander. There was a close relation with them as that which occurs between invader and traitor. Madappalli Kakkai got himself registered as a ‘mudali’ of heritage. Because the registration carried no heritage line his name was without any previous name. If not he would have registered him self earlier. Likewise is Paranirubasingam, higher in status than a ‘mudali’ by lineage? Whether the two paranirubasingans are one and the same or two. Research is needed to sift the truth from the confusion. The Portuguese obtaining money registered the different castes such as kallar, maravar, ahambadiyar, madappalliyar one and all as mudalis. Madapali Paranirubasingan and Pararasasingan registered themselves as mudalis. The loyal subjects of the Singainadu refuse to co-operate with them. Some were bought from India and registered as Vadasiraikoviyar and sold to the newly appointed ‘mudalis’. More slaves were brought form India to establish the madapalliyars and the newly-registered mudalis giving them a status in society. The alien Portuguese who brought the practice of purchasing, slaves, there by into the land came the practice of slavery ‘Chirai’ came into Tamil Society. The ‘Chirais’ were slaves purchased at a prices.



The Singai civilisation lost its stature owing to the negative social practices introduced by the aliens. Because of the fact that the Portuguese allies of the land brought negative aspects into society, the natural citizens of the society referred to the Indians who came in as ‘chirais’ derogatorily ‘vadakkar’. Although the natural inhabitants who were Tamils gave support to the aliens they suffered scorn. It is the ‘Vellalas’ who from time immemorial referred to as ‘mudalis’ not others. It was during Portuguese times that Kakkai Madappalli manage to be registered as Mudali after intense manoeuvring considering that he had earned social elevation. This title wrongly conferred to the ‘madappallis’ made them feel important in society. Further they registered their descendant line as mudalis. Muthali, udaiyar, nainar, nadchiyar tagged after one’s name cannot give the social standing concomitants with these elevating classifications.



Those with genuine social status did not have the custom of tagging their name with mudali or nainar. Those who were ignorant of royal traditions of the people of the land created tremendous social confusion with the entry and entrenchings of the alien Portuguese. The traditions and customs and their qualitative aspects gave away the confusing endeavours. Those writing about the customs and practices of a land and people need to be familiar with them the lack of familiarity is disheartening when writing about a land ignores the essential features of a viable society. Also these who acquired titles could be identified, the people of the land could distinguish the acquired distinction from the real. Mudali title had a tradition behind it. A golden encasing or a ministerial post only gives under the alien an inferior status and enslavement. The Tamil can only live in self-respect in the context of self rule. Self respect is more exalted than ones own life. Those who serve in an alien context cannot have self respect. There were certain people and segments of society turned traitors to the royalty to their land linking themselves with the Portuguese and gained wealthy title and position. Those poets disregarding self-respect sand in praise of such new-categories of persons.



Pararasasingan introduced him self with pride as from the madappalli grouping. Rasamadappaliar and Kumara madappalliar were confirmed as relatives of Paranirubasingan and Pararasasingan. Also it was made out as they were the descendants of Paranirubasinga mudali through concocted stories such elevating has been made. Concealing the royal lineage and through distortions of real facts the royalty blemished. Those who fought valiantly to save the country were defiled and the treacherous who aided the aliens were exalted by some writers and poets. This can only be regretted. Paranirubasinga mudali meant of the vellalar and a royal line cannot issue from it.



For Kopay Velan it was customary to enter the Portuguese fort to cut and trim the commanders hair. As there were indications on an oncoming battle velan escaped to Vanni through fear. There he was captured by the Dutch troops. The Dutch engaged Velan to purchase cattle for their food. At night time, he accompanied the Dutch troops and pointed out the rear entrance of the Portuguese fort. The Dutch forces entered the fort and captured it totally. In the year 1658, the Dutch was able to capture the Portuguese fort while those who were within were asleep without a battle. Valan was made the ‘chief mudali’ for the service he rendered in capturing the fort also the Dutch tried to remove the chief mudali (of elevated lineage) in charge of finance. This individual saved his position by giving in marriage (his sister or sisters daughter) to Velan state Sivanandayogi (Yalpanak kudiyettram – colonising of Jaffna). The Dutch conferred the title of Ulagakavala mudaliar Velan for saving them from the Portuguese. Thus contradicting tradition that velan (Ulagakavala mudali) was raised in status is a fact. Also distorting the nature of the mudali people the Dutch recorded that ulagakavalamudali saved them. Here it must be noted that by marriage ties Kakkai thamby and Velan became relatives.



During the Dutch period too using their wealth, title and influence the Rasamadappalliyas made efforts to raise their social status above the Vellalas through creating needless tremble. In order to placate the two grouping, the Dutch governors appointed the two to the same position, one position to Vellala and one to the madappalli was given according Governor Vanree recorded in his letter as follows:



“In Jaffna town arose an irreconcilable fracas between the Vellalas and madappalliyars the Vellalas urged that by lineage they were of elevated status and that important state positions should be given to them and not to the madappalliyar and this was countered by the madappaliar that they should be appointed as state official; they considered themselves of being higher in social defining by this post. This unfortunate situation always continued. This contradicting situation caused a chaotic situation in the society. The people responsible for feeding a society were praised by the people as a whole and the scholarly. The disturbed condition arose because of contradicting the tradions of a society.



Poothathamby mudaliyar demolished the walls of the seven staged temple streets of Ponnalai Permal Temple and used the building – stones to erect in Kayts (Hamenhill) the Poothathamby Fort and a Dutch church in Singainagar. The result of committing sacrilege by demolishing the temple, Poothaththamby suffered the treachery of Andrasi and was killed. During this happening when efforts were made to behead Poothathamby did not meet with success. Then Andrasi who had posed of as a friend to Poothathamby said that within Poothathamby’s head of hair was ‘Vettara mooli’ (a herb that was called uncuttable herb) was hidden in hair and to remove it and behead him. The herb was removed and Poothathamby underwent beheading. Andrasi died in an unfortunate manner because of the curse of Alagavalli. It is said that ‘although lean and soft karma would creep in softly and devour one’ This is in reality an inalienable truth.



King Rasasekaram




Rasasekaram son of King Kulasegaram crowned as King of Singainadu in 1665 AC to safeguard their sovereignity by ruling of the Singainadu. Dutch rulers made efforts to prevent the King from levying tax from his citizens ended in failure. Dutch rulers tried to get tax from the King was ended without success. Vanni chieftains who were under the Singai Kindom paid tribute to the King and supported him. Dutch rulers tried many times to get the support of the King but not success. Dutch rulers demolished the temples, Keerimalai Sivan Temple, Maviddapuram Murugan Temple and Ponnalai Manivannan Temple .King was unable to prevent these destruction due to weak force and traitors who joined Dutch and Christians had supported the destructions.

Robert Knox said in his book that when he spoke to the people of Anourpuri in 1679 AC there was no one to understand sinhala, they were different from sinhalese and their language was tamil.Adrion Heyland ( Dutch) who visited Ceylon in the 17th century said that major part of Ceylon is tamils dwelling area, it was not come under the sinhala rule or dutch rule and it was called Kailaivanniyan ruling country.Coastal areas belong this ruler , majority of the people of coastal areas speaks tamil and from Negombo to Dondra people speaks sinhala he further said. Actually he stated the vanni areas of the Singai kingdom which were under the rule of King Rajasekaram and Kailaivanniyan was a ruler of Kailaivanniyan territory (Anuorpuri).



King Kulasekaram




King Kulasekaram of the Singainagar royal lineage ascended the throne and was crowned. During the time of his rule he possessed strength as that of the Dutch power. Another Kulasekaran who was an uncle to him ruled Vanni. During this time, the two blood relatives at Iyakkachi were selling cut down tree trunks, the Dutch troops claimed them as belonging to the Dutch regime and endeavoured to take the cut down logs. Kulasekaran drove them away and urged that he had the right to sell them and proceeded with their sale. The Hollanders who felt that they were losing support in the land, bought down fifteen persons from India and had them registered at the Kachcheri as farming – vellalas with the title mudalis. The Tamil subject did not acknowledge the mudalis. The Dutch brought slaves from India and kept in company street and brought Jaffna to serve them by selling them. Still by their group-name tags they were identified. If the name ended in rayar they belonged to the Kallar group and thevar meant maravar group.

To gladden the Dutch governer, Mailvagana Pulavar composed and sang the ‘Yalpana Vaibava Malai’. They were the segments of the people who aided the Dutch in stabilising their rule. During Kulasekaram’s reign, when the Dutch title conferred mudliyars tried to raise them by travelling in the open Palanguin (thandikai) .Kulasekeram stopped them from proceeding in Palanguin made them exit and destroyed the Palanguin. Also he punished them. For this royal act he was launched as ‘thandikai – foe Kulasekeran’. The Palanguin was never used after that. This Kulasekaran is the ruler who took up the task of getting made the artistic engraved divine-chariot for the Paralai Vinayagar Temple (Chulipuram).



King Subramaniam




In their 1770 AC, King Subramanium firmed the sovereignty of Singai Kingdom by donning the crown. He was an expert in the sixty-four Tamil arts. The Hollanders were not cruel as the Portuguese. Today’s Nallur Kandasamy Kovil which earlier had suffered damage was re-erected by Don Joan Mappana Mudaliyar, his service under the Dutch rulers, despite being in service with the Dutch the mappanar families were loyal to the royalty. During this period the Nallur kingdom lands were came under him and the produce of the lands went to him. At the same period of time Vairamuttu chieftain of the Singai Kulasekara royal family ruled Vanni and paid tribute to King Subramaniam. Owing to the fact that King Subramanian and Chieftain Kulasekeram belonged to the same royal family and close relatives and friend to each other acted together to recapture the lost parts of the Singai Kingdom. Neither the Portuguese nor the Hollanders were able to bring under their control the whole of Singai rulership. From the regions they captured, they exercised their power.

Although they tried to capture the Singai rulers, they failed. The Britishers took over the regions under Dutch control. The Singai rulers kept changing their rulership centers over the large region to protect their sovereiguity and rule from the invaders. Also while continuing their rule they battled the alien whites. The Vanniyar’s could not battle further than their boundaries. On the commanding of the Singai Kings, they crossed their boundaries joined the Singai forces and battled on the Vanni expanse, The Singai Kingdom extended from Singainagar to Matale at the centre and to Tricomalee, Kottaiyapuram and Panahai to the east and to the west up to Puttalam, Negambo and Wattale. Income was obtained by the King Subramaniam from the taxes made on the people, jurisdiction was exercised by him by sentencing the guilty, thus rulership powers was with him. During this period Kulasekaram Vairamuttu known as Pandara ( chief ) Vanniyan engaged in war displaying valour. With his death was a step-back to the war reclaiming the land from alien yoke!



King Vairamuthu

Vairamuthu son of King Subraminiam crowned in 1823 AC in Singa Nagar. He continued the royal practices after his father. He levied taxes from his people and exercised jurisdiction by sentencing the guilty thus rulership powers was with him. In the new year ceremonies he presented gold coins to Tamil artists. He inaugurates the food production by ploughing the paddy field. He ruled the Singai Kingdom with four types of soldiers. He took keen mterest in maintaining the Royal Heritage of Singai Nadu. From the year 1505 AC, the Portuguese, the Dutch and then the British troops battled up to 1832 AC with the Singai Tamil rulers, big battles were fought. These wars claimed many Tamil lives, the Kandyan Tamil rulers too fought extending up to 300 years and Kandyan Tamil troops were killed. This caused a big decline in the Tamil population, still the Tamils continued to be in majority.

The political changes made in the year 1833 AC created a negative impact on the Tamils. The capital of lanka was changed from Singainagar to Colombo. The Kandyan Kingdom was destroyed. The boundaries of the three rulerships were obliterated and the British turned all three regions in to one administrative unit, this resulted in the rising influence of the Sinhalese in the Colombo ruling centre. Owing to the fact that the Sinhalese did not engage in battle and got mixed with the aliens, their number rose to be large from being smaller. During this period American Missionaries were attacked and chased out and their offices were set on fire by Sinhala Buddhists in South Ceylon which was under British Rule. American Missionaries took shelter (to secure their lives) in Singainadu under his rule in 1816.

From the year 1789 AC and thereafter the rulership of Singai rulers continued in the regions under their control, although certain segments were lost, their sovereignty continued and endeavors were continually made to recover the territories by engaging in battles.



King Kulasegaram




In the year 1822 AC, Arumugam was born to King Vairamuttu. In the year 1854 AC, he was crowned and ruled the Singai Kingdom, with sovereignty intact and with royal splendour of nandikkodi (bull-flag), troops, chariot and sceptre. He was learned in the sixty-four refining arts. King Kulasegaram strived valliantly to recover the land from alien rule. Arumugam was known as Kulasekaran. He acted in opposition to the spreading of Christianity by the missionaries. He was able to re-convert the earlier Christians. He made the American Missionary doctors retreat and exhibited his talent by curing sicknesses they were unable to cure in 1872. Dr. Green praised Kulasegaram’s success and said you are the “Great Physician of Ceylon”. An American Dr. Green in order to learn the curative methods visited Kulasegeran for one year. In 1873 Doctor Green returned to his home country. Holding with royal tradition and practice, long-standing at the daun of New year (Tamil), he presented as of royal-way, the musicians, dancers and the naglinga long-trumpeteers gold coins in starting off their service to society. If Tamil rule is to strengthen Tamil nationalism ought to be preserved. Through the Sixty-four fine-arts Tamil nationalism was nurtured by King Kulasegarum. The Tamil artists received his favour. Elephant – mounting, horse – mounting, sword-practice and battle- methods, and chariot driving were his talents. The people loved him, they endowed him with their respect and recognised his royal privilege. He exercised powers of taxing, judicial and meting out punishments, those duties of a ruler. The British officials endeavoured several times but failed. He refused to submit to alien rule and although no vanni rulers he fought valiantly to preserve the rulership of Singai Kingdom.





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KING KULASEKARAN 1854 – 1910



DR. S. GREEN





As the Tamil new year begins, the practice of rulers went to drive the plough at the auspicious time. During his time with the white administrators support of the udaiyar (Division alttead) tried to drive the first – plough. On hearing this Arumugam set off with his warriors, tied the udaiyar and his brother-in-law to the plough and commenced the new-year plough-ceremony. The white administrators were unable to exercised their authority against him.



King Kulasekaram brought under cultivation the lands at Mathagal belonging to the Singai rulership. The district revenue officer with the help of the white grandmas tried hard to capture these lands of the Singai Kingdom. Arumugam with his sixty swordsmen defeated the D.R.O. and established his right of rule. In order to celebrate the victory, he donated to his warriors a land-area (naming sixty-dagger-men Pallavalavu) as a royal gift. He demolished the Paralai Esura Vinayagar kovil (Temple) built by Emperor Ethirmanna Pararasasekaran and re-erected it newly. On reaching his ninetieth year he crowned his grand-son subramanium. He passed into the invisible realm in his ninety fifth year.


King Rasasimman



In the year 1911 AC was born King Arumugam’s son Duke Thambipillai’s son Subramaniam. He displayed valour, courage and bravery and was crowned by King Arumugam in the year 1911 AC, he fought with courage and with to recover the entire Tamil Kingdom. To the white British Colonial lords he was a nightmare. In the January of 1910 AC, an occurrence demonstrated to the British rule his powers of rulership and courage. Subramaniam on his rounds to surveille his paddy – fields rode in a Villu-Bullock cart and was returning home. The British Government Agent Price's horse coach was seen travelling before his bullock cart. Subramaniam was angered and over took the coach.





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KING RASASIMMAN 1911 - 1920





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SRI M N CHINNAPPAH SIR HENRY MAC CALLUM SIR P RAMANATHAN



1907 – 1913



GOVERNOR OF CEYLON



The enraged government Agent Price wanted to cunningly take over the bullock cart that over took his coach. He arrange for a bullock cart race to take place at the Jaffna esplanade. This news spread across the land and the question arose whether the bullock would defeat the horse. The esplanade became filled with a large crowd of people to view the event. From Moolai, the royal riders travelled in many horse drawn carriages.



Subramaniam’s warriors with their weapons travelled in twenty bullock carts to provide guard to his bullock cart. The competition race took place and the bullock cart defeated the horse carriage by over taking it. Government agent Price overdue his guards men to take over the bullock cart as being a possession of the British rulership. Prince Rasasimman challenged the right. The government agent, the bullock cart belongs to the Singai royal family and cannot be taken over. As his warriors shot into the over-head air, King Rasasimman rode home reaching Vaddukoddai. The British soldiers were unable to near the bullock – cart. All the way crowds of people lined the streets and gave a runing welcome. At from Vaddukkoddai festive drums were beaten rhythmically, flag royal umbrella and standard bearers with alavattam taking up the lead; royal carriages with their occupants riding in them the procession went on its way. Banana trees, areca nut – palms and leaves of the mango decorating the streets the regions atmosphere got thrilled by the festive view and mood of the people. The auspicious brass – kumba vessel topped by coconut and decorative mango leaves welcomed the procession. The winning bullock – cart and the winner was profusely garlanded and guisely women and gaily coloured garments bestowed with arathi flame rising brass lamps.



The British government agents power appeared diminished. Up to date every Hindu New Year the colourful bullock – race is commemorated in memory of the victory. The eventful bullock – cart victory occasioned the crowning of King Rasasimman. Troops, standard bearers horse and chariot and garland and associated auspicious ceremonies the crowning took place in the year 1911 AC. From the year 1619 AC the royal families battled to recover the rulership in it entirety. The sovereignty of the Singai Kingdom was continuously with the monarch of the Emperor Pararasasekaran lineage they wore the crown and ruled with the sceptre. He was born on 23.04.1888 in Moolai.



The bullock – cart victory and the auspicious ceremonies and the festive mood of the region told the tale that the Singai Kingdom has not lost its sovereignty. The man of Moolai, Sree M. N. Chinnappah arranged a grand welcome for Governor McCallum to honour his relative with silken turban. To welcome the alien governor from Colombo in Singai Tamil land, to give him precedence, King Subramaniam refused such honouring. The welcome planned was brought to an end with these words and ordered King Subramanium.



King Subramanium told his relative who planned to welcome, ‘you must not lend help to the alien governor. I am endeavouring to reclaim Tamil rule. Take the governor to your home and send him back, no festivities, thus he ordered. King Subramanium took the turban to be placed on the head of the victor and placed it on the nagalingam. The British Pennant was lowered from the platform. The ‘Nanthi’ (bull) flag was raised. The governor returned to Colombo without any harm. Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan appeared in the case that followed with great patriotism.



Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan put forward the case, Although the British Governor came with few guardsmen, hundreds of Tamil warriors were present the governor was unharmed; not murdered, not injured, King Subramanium did not interfere with his return to Colombo. The governor ought not be given a welcome on Tamil land; he has no rulership on the Singai Tamil Nadu and as such stopped the celebrations planned. The flag bearing the nanthi symbol should be hoister on Singai Tamil land and he raised it. The foreign governor McCallum on although his foe, he did not suffer any harm. It was possible From 1619 AC, the Singai royalty have ruled on Singai Tamil land without losing their sovereignty King Subramanium belongs to that proud royal lineage.



Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan thus established that the Singai Tamil royalty with its long lineage and King Subramanium belonging to that Royal line meant no harm. Also it was explained that strong exploding crackers were available no harm occurred. If a nation of people start pondering that momentum issuing from them cannot be stilled. The struggles that they have undertaken unbrokenly awakened the people to their rights to their land. The celebrating of the victory over the horse wants telling to his grandsire Arumugam King Subramanium drove around in his chariot drawn by four horses. The people welcomed him with auspicious decorations of mango leaves and young coconut leaves, brass vessels of water topped with shorn coconut and mango-leaves and painted with colour of Kunkum and yellow. Sounds of praise; the beat of victory drums, sweet music and song and blessings showered on him by the females with arati lamp lit flame who placed on his forehead the red-dots marking his triumph. To the guardsmen who were in attendance, gold coins gifted. The crowds that gathered to celebrate the victory in glee and the poets gave him the title Rasasimman (Lion King) their praise was an outflow. The governor ordered the arrest of Subramaniam. The forces of Britain could not the people’s flow of loyalty to the royalty preserved him from treachery. There were not witnesses, chinnappah who planned the welcome earlier declined to be witness.

Subramaniam followed the royal lineage of Singai Kingdom as Rasasimman. He exercised his royal right and sovereignty to exercise power of adjudicating and delivering judgement. He was a representation of the royal line of Singai Emperors, driving the first plough on Tamil new year day (when the sun moves in to the first house of the zodiac arise); those who perform service, the artistes receive gold coins. He distinguished himself in the knowledge of the sixty four Tamil Arts, also known as an adept at surgical cure performed on the soldiers. Where the western medical men failed to cure Veluppillai (timber stores,Jaffna), performed surgical cure and saved his life.



Rasasinman’s royal duty of encouraging the fine arts was notable. Artist Arumugam’s son, Valangaiman Shanmugasundaram (India) who was an artist of fame on the thavildrum, his grand father Ponnalai ( Jaffna )Subramanium was honoured for his talent by gifting by King Rasasimman him the golden trumpet ( nagasinnam ) and awarding him the title Kalaimamani (artist of immeasurable greatness). Also he was made a royal artiste in the year 1918. To the great dancer Kanniha, gold and land were gifted and appointed to the palace as royal danseuse. During the year 1920 AC, the death of Rasasimman occurred suddenly. The King of Singai appointed his son Kulasegaram (Kandasamy) as his heir before his death. The lion of Singai Kingdom ceased to roar. After him Prince Kandasamy, who the heir to throne, protected the crown and sceptre of Singai Kingdom.


King Kulasekaram



Beginning year 1920, Prince Kandasamy the six year old son became the heir to the throne. As he was too young he was unable to lead the forces and protect the Singai rulership. In the year 1930, the Donoughmore commission arrived in Sri Lanka. He put forward his opinion that the Tamil Kingdom ought to have its distinct sovereignty to rule, and that the Singai rulership’s right to rule should be recognised owing to the political leadership of the Tamils was at variance, this opinion could not be upheld.



In the year 1936, King Kulasekaram declared him self the Singai King. This indicated that the Singai royalty did not abandon its sovereignty. The ruler exerted him self to make whole the rulership over the Singai ( Jaffna )Kingdom. Although his endeavours were not of strength mainly because few political leadership was at variance due to their splintered opinion. G.G.Ponnambalam accepted the policy of King Kulasekaram and supported him. Unfortunately his party members (Rasakulam) and Prof.Suntharalingam acted against G.G.P made his policy changed. Up to date the Tamil problem has continued without solution. The failure of the Tamil leadership to envisage what would happen as phase after phase evolved and time made its impact on wared political thinking that could not but influence their land. If they had held to the sovereignty that had not been lost by the Kingdom upheld by its rulers, who never lost their sovereignty to the Europeans.





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KING KULASEKARAM 1920 - 1973



The right to sovereignty not possessed by Britain was wrongfully exerted. The error was mainly the fault of the Tamil leaders. The royalty of Singai, did not lose it to the Portuguese, this was clearly stated by M. Thiruchelvam, but it was not taken note of Britain cannot hand over the administration to anyone else, which sovereignty it never had. Britain ought to have handed it power over to Kulasekaram the ruler of Singai. Handing it over elsewhere was wrongful.



During the Dutch period yala, puttalam, mahavanni, trincomalee, kottiyarupuram, batticaloa, paname including 29 other Tamil vanni ruled regions were under their Tamil rulership. This is recorded in the work relating to Eelam History. The above-mentioned regions were part of Singai-ruled land. During British rule too up to the year 1832 the lands captured by the Dutch from the Singai rulership were under the Jaffna commodore; and the administration of justice, and finance functioned with the necessary establishments related to these functions.



In 1831 Gallbrooke commission with their recommendations warned as follows it must be unlamented without affecting the individuality of the different communities follows different languages, different religions and cultures. There are vast differences between the Sinhalese and Tamils ,cultures belongs to these two groups are different. It is not a good conduct that reforming customs and habits followed for a very long period by new rules and regulations. He said strongly that the outcome of this would be worst.



In addition a commission was appointed in 1832 J.F.Dixon a member of it submitted his suggestions to the Governor Sir James R .Longdon as a special memorandum in 6.9.1833. Because the commission neglected these facts and not interested in considering the differences or in protecting the individualities of the people.



“Individuality of the people belongs to three Kingdoms should be protected. Separate committees for every region for ruling as above should be formed. Committees for ruling can appoint three separate commissioners to rule” said Dixon.

“Establishing a unitary state by changing the present constitutions is not suitable for the present and the future too.” Added further.

“If a unitary state established without considering these differences, it is where the people will loose confidence in the characters of English rulers” clearly he pointed out.



The British established their capital at Kotte, and resultant to this was the decline of the influence of the Tamils with the British and battles necessarily may have caused the shifting from Singainagar, the capital to Colombo. Owing to the removal of boundaries of three kingdoms, passed way to the Sinhalese who lived in Kotte were able to leave Kotte and dwell and work in Singai Kingdom .Professor S.K.Sittambalam stated that when the British gave independence Eelam’s rule ought to have returned to the people of the North. But it went to the Sinhalese people and that has caused several deep problems. The Sri Lankan Tamil Kingdom did not lose its sovereignty to the British. Although weakened the Singai rulers merely lost a part of the region under their rulership but the rule was with the Singai crown, they did not lose their sovereignty.

In 1948, the British crown gave up its colonial rule, lawfully the rulership of the Northeast ought to have returned to the Tamils. The Tamil leaders of then did not function with genuine interest” this was stated by Dr. E.M.V.Neganathan, M.P. (Tamil Daily newspaper Virakesari 11.03.2003)



“The royalty of Nallur was not extinct from the year 1620 AC. The royalty having the crown and sceptre along with the royal nanthi (bull) emblem on the flag were ruling to gain their rulership over whatever regions they had lost. In the Twentieth century King Subramanium pressings the symbols of royalty (crown, sceptre and flag) exerted his rulership and endeavoured to regain the whole of Singai rulership. The grandson of that ruler Rajasekaram belonged to the Royal lineage of Emperor Parasasekaram of Singainadu. This Royal lineage is still endeavouring to regain their rightful heritage. Their appearance and endevour illustrates the fact that the Royal lineage of Nallur’s descendants are still upholding the values and traditions of the Royal line’ (Honourable M. K. Eelavanthan M.P.Speaking at Colombo Thamil Sangam (22.06.2004)



Honourable G. G. Ponambalam speaking in the 1939 has said that the Tamils are the earliest inhabitants of the land of Sri Lanka. A branch of our inhabitants have lived in Sri Lanka before the Sinhala era. Self rule is distinct from rule of a grouping, and they are making all the efforts to capture the rule for themselves, referring to the Sinhala only cabinet and condemning it. To the British governor recommendations have been made secretly and confining all powers to the majority Sinhala ethnicity, has been the greatest treachery committed to the Tamil ethnic minority. In accordance with the constitution, what the cabinet decides to recommend ought to be debated and find a final (conclusion) approval of House of Representatives in this respect the recommendation made to the British Governer without debate and sent to the British Colonial Secretary is an intolerable action (07/12/2006 Thinakkural).



The history of the Tamils in Sri Lanka was deliberately changed and concocted in Sinhala writings. The Tamil rulers were deliberately described as Sinhala rulers and they were accepted by the descendents of the 700 slave who were expelled from India for their criminal activities the real Sinhalese. Furthermore it was made out that only the Sinhalese rulers ruled Ceylon, and they succeeded in this outright falsification of history by convincing the many British administrators. It was blatantly announced that Ceylon belonged to the Sinhalese and there by the rulership and power to rule was taken over by the Sinhalese through a contortion of true historical facts.



Neither the Tamil leaders nor Tamil historians brought to the notice of the British administrators that at the said period – Kandy and Kotte rulers were Tamils and that the official language was Tamil. Thus, by not refuting the wholesale outrage to historical facts great mistake had been committed by the educated Tamils.



Historically, the right to land and right to vote for a representative was only with the Tamil under Singai rulership continously from a period before 1000BC. The Tamils resisted the granting to voting rights to the aliens, but the Donoughmore commission recommendations paved way for the Sinhalese to rule all the Tamils. Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan strongly objected to the recommendations of Donoughmore by stating that Donoughmore means Tamils no more which view he held into the time of his death.



In South Sri Lanka pan Sinhala Nationalism was deliberately planned, mooted and made to flourish; at the same time Tamil nationalism and enthusiasm for it was cruelly crushed. The Tamils of Kandy, who did not trust the Sinhalese from before the arrival of the alien whites; requested the tri-fold rulership that was earlier (1505) in existence still the Tamil leadership failed to assert that the Singai Kingdom was what they wanted.



After the year 1934 AC, when the first general elections were held, the Jaffna leftist urged the people to boycott the elections thus the elections did not take place in the Jaffna peninsula. In the hill country, the hill country tamil leftist won the elections. The general elections was won by the Sinhala leadership who appointed a pan-sinhala cabinet and appropriated the entire power of administrating the country. Also this power clique engaged fully in conspiring to keep the Tamils out of the administering any powers of rulership throng out the succeeding years. This power cliques made wicked plans to eliminate power-sharing with the Tamils, amongst these plans were to colonize the regions of Singainagar rule with the Sinhalese and extended the Kotte ruler boundaries and there by expand the area for the Sinhalese to settle down there. Outside of these conspiracies the appropriation of Tamil land resources was undertaken, thereby shrinking the economic advantages of the Tamils. All endeavored were made by the conspirators to reduce the stature of the Tamils to a minority people among the long-time inhabitants of South Sri Lanka, efforts were made to make them Sinhalese; their entire efforts centered around to enhance the Sinhalese and the Sinhala language and at the same time to enfeeble the Tamils and affect the Tamil language. Among these evil plans were the complete or near-compile monopolizing of employment in the government sector.



Among the conspiring political techniques relentlessly followed by the Sinhala power-monitering ruling sector were as follows:-





  1. Disenfranchisement of the Hill country estate workers totaling around 1 ½ lacks.


  2. In addition to this there was the devil of voting rights to 8 ½ lacks Hill country Tamils. There was another opinion that 15 lacks of Hill country Tamils underwent disenfranchising (Pavai Santhiran Thinakkural – 09-08-2009). The Hill Century Tamils entered parliament through leftist parties, as such the British government ignored the fact that disenfranchisement of the Hill country Tamils was on a big scale.
  3. Kotte Sinhala Government not possesses the sovereignty since 1948.They made an attempt in 1971 to taken over sovereignty from the British Crown through violation or revolution is legally null and void .
  4. There is no provision to draft a new constitution and provisions only to make amendments.Leftists who were against the crown and democracy prepared a new constitution out of the way.If these two constitutions of 1972 &1978 do not have legal values the governments which established from these constitutions also legally not valid which was the cause for disaster of tamils.
  5. Sinhala Government of Kotte does not have authority or jurisdiction over the Singai nadu.Enforcing war and destruction over the Singai Kingdom continuously for sixty years and massacre of six lakhs and sixteen thousand of tamils and its troops forcibly occupying Singai nadu is unlawful,unjustice and breech of international laws and conventions.



Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan was a statesman of eminence, Philosopher, a legal luminary, and greatly devoted to Saiva Hindu Philosophies a Tamil Scholar. He was devoted to the Singainagar rulership and possessed the political genius to look into the future. His defense of Singai King in the year 1912 AC and appearing on his behalf and was able to overcome the then British governor and protecting the Singai King Rajasimman. He was able to establish the fact of Singainagar heritage of continued rulership. In contrast to this, the Tamil leadership coming after him failed to strengthen the fact of Tamil King of Singainagar.



The Donoughmore and Soulbury commissions sent by the British Colonial rulers were not properly acquainted with the facts of history and continual Tamil rulership lineage by the Tamil leadership. The right claims of the Tamils were neglected by these leaders, they possessed no comprehension of future developments in the country’s future, also the leftist learning’s of certain Tamil leaders also added to the problems. Which led to a political decline in influence of the Tamil population of Sri Lanka. The neglect of placing historical facts relating to continual rulership of the Tamils was an enormous error.



Lord Soulbury said in his forward of a book 'Ceylon is a Divided country' written by B.H.Farmer in 1962 said that He accepted and worried the mistake made by him failed to consider the statements made by the Tamil leaders of Ceylon which was the cause for existing pain and destruction of Ceylon Tamils. A period of 15 years was taken to Lord Soulbury to realise his mistake. But no action have been taken by British Authorities yet to rectify the mistakes made by the commissions in 1831, 1930 and 1945 .Therefore consider to recognise the unlost sovereignty of Singai Kings and lawful independance of Singai kingdom is the only choice for the British Authorities and international countries to stop the war against tamils, massacre of tamils and bring peace in Srilanka and other countries. To be down-trodden and enslaved is not a disgrace but to be entitled to rights and submit to be enslaved is a great disgrace said Mahatma Gandhi in the year 1929 to the American black population.''Without providing the rights of the people you can't bring calm and peace'' said by Abraham Lincoln ex- President of America.



The failure to place before the public and the world the historical truths relating to the Tamils led to their being referred to as (Kallathonis -illegal immigrants), the enslaved; as those who came from the mainland of India after the 12th Century AC that created a mimic picture of historical distortion leading to the Tamils being targeted for revile. As a result of this neglect of historical facts the people outside Sri Lanka are presented a distorted picture of the Tamil problem – What is the Sri Lankan problem? What is the cause of the problem? Not knowing the true facts of war between two nations ,massacre, their attention is focused fully on the impacts of the genocide and trying to solve them. The Singainagar ruler, Kulasegeram kept the nanthi-flag (emblem of the bull) flying in 04-02-1948 in all regions under the Singainagar rulership and that this rulership never came under the Colombo rule. Tamil leadership refrained from attending the Kotte Parliament and stood with the Singainagar ruler Kulasegaram, Jaffna would have had its own parliament with the King.



Tamil leaders opposed the Lion flag in Parliament in 1948, Honourable Prime Minister D.S. Senanayakke replied that according to history the lion flag is the flag of Dravidians (Flag of Tamil Kings). As it was accepted by the majority of the House as National Flag of Ceylon we have to accept it. I can’t change it. (This is the sorry plight of Tamil Leaders). After 1948 the action taken by the illegal Sinhala government of Kotte in Singai nadu is null and void and punishable offence under the international laws.



Instead of preserving their entitlement, there had been a foliate endeavor for what they had no practical use. The ruler Kulasegaran appointed his eldest son Rajasegaram in the year 1972 as his heir and crown prince. In the year 1973 ruler Kulasegaram died after being ill. Through discussions and negotiations with the tamil leaders and others Prince Rajasekaram took several steps to implement the rights of Tamils in Srilanka and also to bring justice to the affected Tamils.Since 1972 he has been taking actions to protect the lives ,rights and belongings of his people Singainadu amicably and lawful ways.Citizens of Singainadu always loyal to Singai royalty and paying high respect to his royal highness with confidence and much expectations.In 1977 whole citizens of Singainadu cofirmed their support for Singai kingdom and to restore its rule within its boundary.

As aresult of genocide of tamils in 1983 ,India entered into an agreement with Srilanka in 1987 to safeguard the tamils because of the action taken by the vetran tamil leader A.Amirthalingam. This agreement was approved by the parliaments of India and Srilanka. Rajiv Gandhi ex-Prime Minister of India produced the agreement in the U.N.O.session as he realised it is a matter regarding two nations. America welcomed the agreement. As aresult the state was recognised and a state assembly was established in 1989. Once again the sovereignty of Singai kingdom and it of Indias independance approved by India and Kotte sinhala government. Very soon Sinhala Govt. of Kotte suppressed the State Assembly of Singainadu against the peace accord. Chief minister Varatharajaperumal and his Government declared the independance of Singainadu by passing a resolution in the state assembly with the support of India and its troops stayed in Srilanka in 1990. Due to the anti India activities of few tamil groups of ceylon India had withdrawn its support of Ceylon tamils and failed to take action to implement the agreement in his part and safeguard tamils.

In 2002 when Norway came as facitator and peace talks started ,tamils had their own kingdom , boundaries and a seperate rule .Norway had done its best to bring peace .Unfortunately Sinhala Govt. cheated the Norway by neglected the Memorandam of Understanding and invade into Singainadu by massacre of one lakh and ninety three thousand tamils through thousands of air raids over civilions and multi barrel shelling from land and sea since 2006. When Norway left the country tamils lost their land and its rule is the impact of the M.O.U. Anil Agathley retired Colonel of India said in his article (published in Thinakural 07.06.2009 ) that the entire northern region of Srilanka was changed into camp (after the end of L.T.T.E war ). Srilankan diplomacy is well organised with experts and it acts successfully in hiding its own extreme approach over he added further.Vanny people says that there were no land mines in their dwelling areas when they left in May 2009.

Twenty thousand tamil youths who were under imprisonment in the barbed wire fenced army security camps ( Vavuniya ) missing in four months is a joke of the authorities who are held responsible, said irresponsibly. Humanetarian activities of the sinhala government from 2007 to 2009 resulted in the massacre of two lakhs of tamils (approximately) is a punishable offence. Conceal the truth ,preventing the witness ( including journalists ), removing the evidences and refusal of the above alligations can't deny the fact of massacre and cannot help them who were responsible to escape from the punishment under international court of law.

All those Tamils who were forced to leave the land, who suffered dislocation and internal displacement due to war, who are virtual prisoners in refugee camps, still love in the hope of a new dawn brightening their lives. Let the higher power God Siva bestow on them the highest welfare. From the very ancient period up to now Singai Kingdom maintained its rule and boundaries as a separate with its soveregnty is the real fact. Since 1948 Tamils have been fighting against sinhala buddhist terrorism to safeguard the independance of Singai Kingdom and to protect its boundaries from encroachment.